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Figure 3: 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of urine acquired at 400 MHz from: (a) cancer, (b) benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and (c) control. Assignment of metabolites: 1 = Branched-chain amino acids, 2 = Lactate, 3 = 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, 4 = N-acetyl groups, 5 = 2-hydroxy glutarate, 6 = Pyruvate, 7 = Citrate, 8 = Dimethylamine, 9 = Sarcosine, 10 = Creatinine, 11 = Cis-aconitic acid, 12 = Trimethylamine-N-oxide, 13 = Glycine, 14 = Serine, 15 = Hippurate, 16 = 4-hydroxybenzoate, 17 = 3-methylhistidine, 18 = phenylalanine, 19 = Histidinem, 20 = Trigonelline, 21 = Formate

Figure 3: <sup>1</sup>H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of urine acquired at 400 MHz from: (a) cancer, (b) benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and (c) control. Assignment of metabolites: 1 = Branched-chain amino acids, 2 = Lactate, 3 = 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, 4 = N-acetyl groups, 5 = 2-hydroxy glutarate, 6 = Pyruvate, 7 = Citrate, 8 = Dimethylamine, 9 = Sarcosine, 10 = Creatinine, 11 = Cis-aconitic acid, 12 = Trimethylamine-N-oxide, 13 = Glycine, 14 = Serine, 15 = Hippurate, 16 = 4-hydroxybenzoate, 17 = 3-methylhistidine, 18 = phenylalanine, 19 = Histidinem, 20 = Trigonelline, 21 = Formate