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   2013| July-September  | Volume 29 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 29, 2013

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Current role of microperc in the management of small renal calculi
Ravindra B Sabnis, Raguram Ganesamoni, Arvind P Ganpule, Shashikant Mishra, Jigish Vyas, Jitendra Jagtap, Mahesh Desai
July-September 2013, 29(3):214-218
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117282  PMID:24082443
'Microperc' is a recently described technique in which percutaneous renal access and lithotripsy are performed in a single step using a 16 G micropuncture needle. 'Mini-microperc' is a further technical modification in which an 8 Fr sheath is used to allow insertion of ultrasonic or pneumatic lithoclast probe with suction. The available evidence indicates that microperc is safe and efficient in the management of small renal calculi in adult and pediatric population. It can also be used for renal calculi in ectopic kidneys and bladder calculi. The high stone clearance rate and lower complication rate associated with microperc make it a viable alternative to retrograde intrarenal surgery.
  7,629 382 5
The ideal puncture approach for PCNL: Fluoroscopy, ultrasound or endoscopy?
Bannakij Lojanapiwat
July-September 2013, 29(3):208-213
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117284  PMID:24082442
Percutaneous renal access is a common procedure in urologic practice. The main indications are drainage of an obstructed and hydronephrotic kidney and antegrade renal access prior to percutaneous renal surgeries such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and percutaneous endopyelotomy (EP). The contraindications for this technique are patients with history of allergy to topical or local anesthesia and patients with coagulopathy. The creation of a percutaneous tract into the renal collecting system is one of the important steps for percutaneous renal access. This step usually requires imaging. The advantages and disadvantages of each modality of image guidance are controversial. We performed a structured review using the terms: Percutaneous nephrostomy, guidance, fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The outcomes are discussed.
  7,392 324 1
Best laser for prostatectomy in the year 2013
Pankaj N Maheshwari, Nitin Joshi, Reeta P Maheshwari
July-September 2013, 29(3):236-243
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117286  PMID:24082446
Lasers have come a long way in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Over last nearly two decades, various different lasers have been utilized for prostatectomy. Neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser that started this journey, is no longer used for prostatectomy. Holmium laser can achieve transurethral enucleation of the prostatic adenoma producing a fossa that can be compared with the fossa after Freyer's prostatectomy. Green light laser has a short learning curve, is nearly blood-less with good immediate results. Thulium laser is a faster cutting laser while diode laser is a portable laser device. Often laser prostatectomy is considered as a replacement for the standard transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). To be comparable, laser should reduce or avoid the immediate and long-term complications of TURP, especially bleeding and need for blood transfusion. It should also be safe in the ever increasing patient population on antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs. We need to take stock of the situation and identify, which among the present day lasers has stood the test of time. A review of the literature was performed to see if any of these lasers could be called the "best laser for prostatectomy in 2013."
  7,386 276 -
Management of large prostatic adenoma: Lasers versus bipolar transurethral resection of prostate
Narmada P Gupta, Rishi Nayyar
July-September 2013, 29(3):225-235
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117288  PMID:24082445
Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) has long been the most commonly performed surgical procedure for the management of benign prostate enlargement (BPE), but has several associated limitations. Over the years, laser techniques have developed as major contenders as alternative therapies for BPE. However, simultaneously, TURP has also flourished and with relatively recent development of resection in saline (bipolar TURP), the tussle between laser techniques and TURP has further gained momentum. A systematic search was performed on Medline using the various Medical subject headings related to the surgical management of BPE including TURP, bipolar, lasers, holmium laser enucleation of prostate (HoLEP), photo-selective vaporization of prostate (PVP), etc., All articles types including meta-analysis randomized controlled trials, review articles, guidelines from various urological associations, single center studies from 2002 onward were considered for review. Bipolar TURP, HoLEP, and PVP provide equivalent outcomes for large prostate adenoma (>60 g). For extremely large glands (>150 g), HoLEP is a very efficacious endoscopic alternative to open prostatectomy and has proven long-term results over more than a decade. Bipolar TURP and PVP are attractive with a minimal learning curves and equivalent short term durability. Surgical management of large prostate should be individualized based upon patient's comorbidities and surgeon's expertise.
  6,119 232 -
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy today
Geert G Tailly
July-September 2013, 29(3):200-207
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117283  PMID:24082441
Even 32 years after its first introduction shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) remains a matter of discussion and controversy. Since the first SWL in 1980, millions of treatments have been performed worldwide. To this day SWL remains the least invasive of all stone treatments and is considered the treatment modality of first choice for the majority of urinary stones. Despite the massive scale on which SWL is performed in a wide range of indications, complication rate has always remained very low and usually limited to minor side effects and complications. The introduction of affordable multifunctional lithotripters has made SWL available to more and more departments of urology worldwide. Still many centers are disappointed with the treatment results and concerned about the adverse tissue effects. In this SWL proves to be the victim of its uninvasiveness and its apparent ease of practice. Urologists need proper skill and experience; however, to adequately administer shockwaves in order to improve outcome. This aspect is too often minimized and neglected. Apart from this the power of shockwaves often is underestimated by operators of shockwave machines. Basic knowledge of the physics of shockwaves could further reduce the already minimal adverse tissue effects. Good training and coaching in the administration of shockwaves would no doubt lead to a renaissance of SWL with better treatment results and minimal adverse tissue effects.
  5,445 226 1
Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteric reflux with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux): Single-surgeon experience with 48 ureters
V. V. S. Chandrasekharam
July-September 2013, 29(3):173-176
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117269  PMID:24082435
Purpose: VUR is a common urologic problem in children. Cystoscopic injection of bulking agents (most commonly Deflux) has gained popularity as the first line treatment in the west. However, primarily due to cost factors, it has not gained much popularity in our country. We present our initial experience with cystoscopic Deflux injection for VUR. Materials and Methods: We reviewed our 3-yr experience with the use of Dx/HA (Deflux) for correction of VUR in children and adolescents. All children were evaluated with Ultrasound, MCUG and DMSA renal cortical scan. The indications for surgical correction of VUR included breakthrough infections while on antibiotic prophylaxis, persistent high-grade VUR beyond 3 yrs of age, and presence of significant renal damage on DMSA at diagnosis (in those children presenting with UTI). All children underwent cystoscopic Deflux injection using the standard technique of subureteral injection (0.4-1 ml per ureter). All children received antibiotic prophylaxis for 3-6 months after the injection. USG was done at 1 month and MCUG at 3-6 months after the injection. Results: 33 patients (48 ureters) underwent cystoscopic Deflux injection for correction of VUR. Mean age was 4.5 yrs (1-17 yrs); there were 12 boys and 21 girls. Thirteen children had antenatally diagnosed HDN, while 20 children presented with febrile UTI. All children had primary VUR except one child with persistent VUR 4 yrs after PUV fulguration. The VUR was grade 1-2 in 8, grade 3-4 in 37, and grade 5 in 3 ureters. Every child had at least one ureter with dilating reflux (grades 3,4 or 5). When present, low grade VUR (grade 1or 2) was always on the contralateral side. Only one child received a 2 nd injection after 6 months. Follow-up MCUG was done in 28 children (41 ureters). Complete reflux resolution was achieved in 27 ureters (65%), and the reflux was downgraded in 2 (5%). There were no complications of Deflux injection. Conclusions: Endoscopic correction of VUR in children is a safe and effective minimally invasive treatment for VUR. It stops or downgrades VUR in 70% of ureters. At present, we recommend it as a first-line treatment for grades 1-4 VUR requiring surgical management. Cost is the major factor limiting its use in our country.
  5,386 162 -
DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induced by safranal in human prostate cancer cell line
Saeed Samarghandian, Mahmoud M Shabestari
July-September 2013, 29(3):177-183
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117278  PMID:24082436
Objectives: Apoptosis, an important mechanism that contributes to cell growth reduction, is reported to be induced by Crocus sativus (Saffron) in different cancer types. However, limited effort has been made to correlate these effects to the active ingredients of saffron. The present study was designed to elucidate cytotoxic and apoptosis induction by safranal, the major coloring compound in saffron, in a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3). Materials and Methods: PC-3 and human fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/ml). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to assess cytotoxicity. DNA fragmentation was assessed by gel electrophoresis. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of safranal, and cell morphologic changes and apoptosis were determined by the normal inverted microscope, Annexin V, and propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Results: MTT assay revealed a remarkable and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of safranal on PC-3 cells in comparison with non-malignant cell line. The morphologic alterations of the cells confirmed the MTT results. The IC 50 values against PC-3 cells were found to be 13.0 ΁ 0.07 and 6.4 ΁ 0.09 μg/ml at 48 and 72 h, respectively. Safranal induced an early and late apoptosis in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, indicating apoptosis is involved in this toxicity. DNA analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 48 and 72 h after treatment, indicative of apoptosis. Conclusions: Our preclinical study demonstrated a prostate cancer cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent.
  5,353 118 5
Management of 1-2 cm renal stones
Aneesh Srivastava, Saurabh S Chipde
July-September 2013, 29(3):195-199
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117280  PMID:24082440
Introduction: The preferred treatment of <1cm stone is shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), while that of stone >2 cm is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), but treatment of 1-2 cm renal stones is a controversial issue. We searched the literature to present a comprehensive review on this group. Material and Methods: Pubmed search of literature was done using the appropriate key words. We separately discussed the literature in lower polar and non lower polar stone groups. Results: For non lower polar renal stones of 1-2 cm, SWL is preferred approach, while for the lower polar stones; literature favors the use of PCNL. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is emerging as a promising technique for these calculi. Conclusions: Treatment of renal stone disease depends on stone and patient related, as well as on renal anatomical factors. Treatment should be individualized according to site of stone and available expertise.
  4,498 401 -
Prospective evaluation of risk factors for mortality in patients of Fournier's gangrene: A single center experience
Hari Gopal Vyas, Anup Kumar, Vimal Bhandari, Niraj Kumar, Abhinav Jain, Rohit Kumar
July-September 2013, 29(3):161-165
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117255  PMID:24082432
Introduction: Fournier's gangrene is an aggressive disease with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors associated with mortality among patients of Fournier's gangrene. Materials and Methods: Between May 2011 and September 2012, all patients of Fournier's gangrene treated at our center were included in the study. All patients underwent emergency surgical debridement and received broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Their baseline characteristics, treatment, and follow-up data were recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 30 patients were included in the study. Of these, six patients (20%) died during the treatment. Age >55 years, total leukocyte count >15000 cumm, extent of the area involved, septic shock at admission, visual analog scale (VAS) >7 at admission, and Fournier gangrene severity index (FGSI) score >8 at admission were significantly associated with increased mortality. Conclusion : In patients of Fournier's gangrene, increased age, total leukocyte count, extent of the area involved, septic shock at admission, VAS score, and FGSI score at admission have a significant association with mortality.
  4,290 153 2
Comparison of three different techniques of extraction in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy
Kishore Thekke Adiyat, BK Tharun, Abijit Shetty, Srinivas Samavedi
July-September 2013, 29(3):184-187
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117279  PMID:24082437
Aim: We compare the outcome of three different methods of graft extraction after a laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Materials and Methods: After a conventional five port laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, specimen was extracted through one of three approaches: 1. Iliac fossa (IF) incision and hand extraction, 2. Midline (MD) periumbilical with a lower polar fat stitch incorporating gonadal vein for traction while retrieval, and 3. Pfannensteil (PF) with Gel port extraction. Estimated blood loss, operating time, warm ischemia time, incision length, pain score, analgesic consumption, hospital stay, wound complications, graft complications and recipient creatinine at 6 weeks were analyzed. Results: Warm ischemia time was significantly reduced in PF group when compared to other groups. Length of the incision was less in the MD group compared to other groups. Wound complications were significantly less in PF group when compared to other groups. Graft extraction complications were significantly high in MD group compared to other two groups. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, our current method of preference is by Pfannensteil incision. A controlled extraction with the use of a hand assist device would be best for donor safety and to avoid graft related complications.
  4,289 101 -
Evaluation of early endoscopic realignment of post-traumatic complete posterior urethral rupture
Yaser M Abdelsalam, Medhat A Abdalla, Ahmad S Safwat, Ehab O ElGanainy
July-September 2013, 29(3):188-192
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117281  PMID:24082438
Introduction: to report our experience with 41 patients treated by early endoscopic realignment of complete post-traumatic rupture urethra. Materials and Methods: The study includes patients presented to our institute, between May 2004 and April 2009, with post-traumatic complete posterior urethral disruption. Preoperative retrograde urethrography, voiding cystourethrography and abdominopelvic CT were performed to evaluate the urethral defect length, the bladder neck competence, the prostate position, and the extent of the pelvic hematoma. Within the first week after trauma, antegrade and retrograde urethroscopy were performed to identify both urethral ends and insert urethral catheter. Patients were followed up by pericatheter retrograde urethrogram monthly postoperatively till catheter removal on disappearance of extravasation. Retrograde urethrography, voiding cystourethrography and urethroscopy were performed 1 month after the removal of the catheter. Follow-up abdominal ultrasound and uroflowmetry monthly till 6 months, bimonthly till 1 year, and every 3 months thereafter were encouraged. Urinary continence and postoperative erectile dysfunction were assessed by direct patient interview. Results: Forty one patients in the age group 17-61 years (mean 37.9) were treated. Patients were followed up for 12-36 months (mean 17 months). Complete healing of the urethra occurred in 18 patients (43.9%). Passable urethral stricture developed in 15 patients (36.6%). Complete urethral obstruction occurred in eight patients (19.5%). Conclusions: Early endoscopic realignment for complete posterior urethral rupture is a feasible technique with no or minimal intraoperative complications. The technique is successful as the definitive line of therapy in reasonable number of patients and seems to render further future interventions for inevitable urethral stricture easier.
  3,551 129 -
Controversies in ureteroscopy: Wire, basket, and sheath
Emad R Rizkala, Manoj Monga
July-September 2013, 29(3):244-248
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117287  PMID:24082447
In the last one to two decades, flexible ureteroscopy has rapidly expanded its role in the treatment of urologic stone disease. With the frequent and expanded use of flexible ureteroscopy, other ancillary instruments were developed in order to ease and facilitate this technique, such as ureteral access sheaths (UAS) and a variety of wires and baskets. These developments, along with improved surgeon ureteroscopic competence, have often brought into question the need to implement the "traditional technique" of flexible ureteroscopy. In this review, we discuss a brief history of flexible ureteroscopy, its expanded indications, and the controversy surrounding the use of UAS, wires, and baskets.
  3,481 191 -
Pleated colposuspension: Our modification of Burch colposuspension
Vesna S Antovska
July-September 2013, 29(3):166-172
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117265  PMID:24082433
Introduction: Burch colposuspension is a standard treatment for stress urinary incontinence. However, it is associated with recurrence and urinary retention. We describe a modification of this technique to overcome these problems and evaluate the results in comparison with the standard procedure. Materials and Methods: A total of 145 patients with isolated stress urinary incontinence (SUI), underwent either our modified pleated colposuspension (PC); n = 97) or standard Burch colposuspension (BC) (n = 48). Description of PC: Three No. 0 non-absorbable sutures were placed in the side-to-side manner at the mid-urethral level with 0.5-1.0 cm distance between them using double bites and were passed through the Cooper's ligament. The patients were followed-up every 6 months for SUI and genital prolapse evaluation. Successful surgery was defined as (1) No self-reported SUI symptoms, (2) Negative Marshall's coughing test (MT), (3) No retreatment for SUI, (4) Absence of urodynamic SUI. In addition, failure was defined as the occurrence of urinary retention, use of catheter on 6-week visit, maximum flow rate <15 ml/s, flow time >60 s, or residual urine >100 ml. Data was compared using Student's paired test and Mantel-Haenzel's χ2 test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean follow-up after surgery for PC was 102.4 months and for BC was 103.6 months. At last follow-up, data suggesting failure (Stress score ≥7, urge score ≥7, Pad test with weight > 15 g/day and positive MT during lithotomic/upright position) were more frequent in BC group (P < 0.05; P < 0.0; P < 0.01; P < 0.05; P < 0.05, respectively). The incidence of recurrent SUI was 5.2% after PC and almost triple (14.6%) after BC. Residual urine >100 ml and weak stream were more frequent in the BC group (P < 0.05; P < 0.01, respectively). Detrusor over-activity on urodynamic studies, Flow time >60 s, urethral pressure profilometry positive for obstruction had a higher incidence in BC group (P < 0.01; P < 0.001; P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Our modified pleated colposuspension showed improved outcomes when compared with standard Burch colposuspension.
  3,546 67 -
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Large tube, small tube, tubeless, or totally tubeless?
Madhu S Agrawal, Mayank Agarwal
July-September 2013, 29(3):219-224
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117285  PMID:24082444
The role of percutaneous nephrostomy tube for drainage after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) procedure has come under scrutiny in recent years. The procedure has been modified to use of small diameter tubes, 'tubeless' PCNL, and even 'totally tubeless' PCNL. A review of the available literature confirms that the chosen method of drainage after PCNL has a bearing upon the post-operative course. It is generally recognized now that small tubes offer benefit in terms of reduced post-operative pain and morbidity. Similarly, nephrostomy-free or 'tubeless' PCNL, using a double-J stent or ureteric catheter as alternative form of drainage, can be used with a favorable outcome in selected patients with the advantage of decreased postoperative pain, analgesia requirement, and hospital stay. Although the tubeless technique has been applied for extended indications as well, the available evidence is insufficient, and needs to be substantiated by prospective randomized trials. In addition, 'totally tubeless' approach has also been shown to be feasible in selected patients.
  3,343 235 -
Microperc for the management of renal calculi in pelvic ectopic kidneys
Raguram Ganesamoni, Ravindra B Sabnis, Shashikant Mishra, Mahesh R Desai
July-September 2013, 29(3):257-259
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117267  PMID:24082451
Management of stone disease in an ectopic kidney is challenging. Laparoscopy or ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy and retrograde intra-renal surgery are the preferred techniques for these stones. We performed ultrasound guided microperc using a 16 G needle for the management of renal calculi in pelvic ectopic kidneys in two patients. There was no intraoperative or post-operative complication. Both patients had complete stone clearance and were discharged on the first post-operative day. Ultrasound guided microperc is a safe and effective option for the management of small renal calculi in pelvic ectopic kidneys.
  3,254 83 4
A giant ureteric calculus
Rajiv Rathod, Prashant Bansal, Srinivas Gutta
July-September 2013, 29(3):263-264
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117274  PMID:24082453
Ureteric stones are usually small and symptomatic. We present a case of a 35-year old female who presented with minimally symptomatic right distal ureteric calculus with proximal hydroureteronephrosis. Laparoscopic right ureterolithotomy was performed and a giant ureteric calculus measuring 11 cm Χ 1.5 cm, weighing 40 g was retrieved.
  2,831 108 -
Pyelo-hepatic abscess caused by renal calculi: A rare complication
Raman Tanwar, Santosh K Singh, Devendra S Pawar
July-September 2013, 29(3):249-250
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117260  PMID:24082448
Neglected renal calculi can lead to a variety of complications secondary to obstruction and infection. Pyonephrosis arising in this scenario often presents as a urological emergency and requires urgent surgical intervention. In rare circumstances, when left unaided, the kidney is unable to contain the infection and spread of pus may occur into the surrounding spaces like the retroperitoneum and the peritoneum. We report a very unusual complication of pyonephrosis leading to a hepatic abscess. We believe this is the first reported case of an acute renal infection due to stone disease ascending into the liver.
  2,691 59 -
Chylolymphatic cyst of the greater omentum presenting as abdominoscrotal swelling in a child
Kangjam Sholay Meitei, Sinam Rajendra Singh, Khumukcham Somarendra Singh
July-September 2013, 29(3):260-262
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117271  PMID:24082452
Omental cyst are rare abdominal lesions and are difficult to diagnose. They are detected incidentally during imaging studies performed for unrelated reasons. In children, it may present as an acute abdomen due to intestinal obstruction or painless abdominal swelling. Imaging is helpful in excluding other causes of lump abdomen. We encountered a case of giant omental cyst presenting with abdominoscrotal swelling in a child. The patient underwent laparotomy and the diagnosis of omental cyst was established by intraoperative findings. Thus complete excision of the cyst was performed. The diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination.
  2,668 34 -
Spontaneous closure of urethrovaginal fistula associated with pelvic fracture
Bipin Chandra Pal, Pranjal Modi, Jayesh Modi, Suresh Kumar, Chirag Patel
July-September 2013, 29(3):251-252
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117262  PMID:24082449
Female urethral injury following pelvic fracture is a rare entity. Due to the absence of large series, management guidelines are still not standardized. Patients can have associated urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula, management of which poses a major challenge to the reconstructive urologist. Spontaneous closure of fistula produced by gynecological or obstetrical injuries have been described in the literature. Spontaneous closure of fistula caused due to pelvic fracture has not been described in the literature.
  2,399 48 -
Pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma of urinary bladder with calcified pulmonary metastasis: A rare entity
Prasad Mylarappa, Prathvi , Tarun Javali, D Ramesh, Vinay Prabhu, Aarathi R Rau
July-September 2013, 29(3):253-256
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117263  PMID:24082450
We report the case of a 29-year-old male who presented to us with hematuria, dysuria and bilateral flank pain. On evaluation, the patient was found to have primary pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma of bladder with calcified pulmonary metastasis, confirmed with computerized tomography scan and immunohistochemistry.
  2,344 41 -
Assessing surgical competence: A challenge
Nitin S Kekre
July-September 2013, 29(3):159-160
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117250  PMID:24082431
  2,087 105 -
Diameter-axial-polar nephrometry: Has a better scoring system arrived?
Praveen Kumar Pandey
July-September 2013, 29(3):266-267
  2,029 84 -
Controversies in endourology
Madhu S Agrawal
July-September 2013, 29(3):193-194
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.117289  PMID:24082439
  1,845 140 -
Antibiotic prophylaxis before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with sterile urine: Routine or targeted
Nitin Abrol
July-September 2013, 29(3):265-266
  1,687 73 -
Retraction Notice

July-September 2013, 29(3):172-172
  1,400 85 -
Is Paclitaxel-based chemotherapy the way forward in testicular cancer?
Vivek Venkatramani
July-September 2013, 29(3):268-269
  1,339 33 -
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