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   2010| October-December  | Volume 26 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 31, 2010

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Epidemiology of pediatric urolithiasis
Ajay P Sharma, Guido Filler
October-December 2010, 26(4):516-522
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74450  PMID:21369384
Pediatric urolithiasis has increased globally in the last few decades. There has been a change in the pattern of stone composition with an increase in the frequency of kidney stones and a decrease in bladder stones. The role of familial predisposition and environmental factors in pediatric urolithiasis is now better understood. Metabolic factors are more common in pediatric urolithiasis than in adult stone disease. This review updates on the epidemiology of pediatric urolithiasis with a focus on the changing trends in the stone disease, current spectrum of stone disease encountered in clinical practice, individual predisposition and the role of environmental factors in stone formation.
  13 7,107 366
Open surgical management of pediatric urolithiasis: A developing country perspective
Syed A Rizvi, Sajid Sultan, Hussain Ijaz, Zafar N Mirza, Bashir Ahmed, Sherjeel Saulat, Sadaf Aba Umar, Syed A Naqvi
October-December 2010, 26(4):573-576
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74464  PMID:21369393
Objectives : To describe decision factors and outcome of open surgical procedures in the management of children with stone. Materials and Methods : Between January 2004 and December 2008, 3969 surgical procedures were performed in 3053 children with stone disease. Procedures employed included minimally invasive techniques shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), ureterorenoscopy (URS), perurethral cystolithotripsy (PUCL), percutaneous cystolithotripsy (PCCL), and open surgery. From sociomedical records demographics, clinical history, operative procedures, complications, and outcome were recorded for all patients. Results : Of 3969 surgeries, 2794 (70%) were minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques to include SWL 19%, PCNL 16%, URS 18.9%, and PUCL+PCCL 16% and 1175 (30%) were open surgeries. The main factors necessitating open surgery were large stone burden 37%, anatomical abnormalities 16%, stones with renal failure 34%, gross hydronephrosis with thin cortex 58%, urinary tract infection (UTI) 25%, and failed MIS 18%. Nearly 50% of the surgeries were necessitated by economic constraints and long distance from center where one-time treatment was preferred by the patient. Stone-free rates by open surgeries were pyelolithotomy 91%, ureterolithotomy 100%, and cystolithotomy 100% with complication rate of upto 3%. Conclusions : In developing countries, large stone burden, neglected stones with renal failure, paucity of urological facilities, residence of poor patients away from tertiary centers necessitate open surgical procedures as the therapy of choice in about 1/3rd of the patients. Open surgery provides comparable success rates to MIS although the burden and nature of disease is more complex. The scope of open surgery will remain much wide for a large population for considered time in developing countries.
  13 5,174 195
Nutritional aspect of nephrolithiasis
Anita Saxena, RK Sharma
October-December 2010, 26(4):523-530
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74451  PMID:21369385
Nephrolithiasis is associated with a variety of abnormalities in urinary composition. These abnormal urinary risk factors are due to dietary indiscretions, physiological-metabolic disturbances or both. Stone disease is morbid and costly, and the recurrence rates may be as high as 30-50% after 5 years. Efforts to prevent stone formation are, therefore, essential. Dietary factors play an important role in kidney stone formation. Tailored dietary recommendations based on metabolic evaluation should be offered to patients for the prevention of recurrence of stone formation. Dietary intervention and subsequent evaluations of therapeutic efficacy should be based on results from multiple 24-h urine collections. Urine flow of >1 ml/kg/h almost eliminates the risk of supersaturation for calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid, thus protecting from the formation of corresponding kidney stones. In patients with cystenuria, the required urine flow may even be higher and, in cases such as primary xanthinuria, high fluid intake is required. Milk intake in these patients should be within the RDA of calcium and protein. In children, recommendation of a high fluid intake has only limited success. Nevertheless, each patient should be advised about adequate fluid intake to increase urine volume in accordance with body size. Although children with hypocitraturia may benefit from therapeutic agents that raise the urine citrate concentration, all children bearing residual fragments should be counseled on adequate fluid intake along with potassium citrate treatment to prevent stone regrowth or formation.
  8 7,544 401
Pelvis/cortex ratio: A sonographic marker of pelvi ureteric junction obstruction in children
Ramesh Babu, Venkata Sai
October-December 2010, 26(4):494-496
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74437  PMID:21369378
Objectives : The aim of the study is to document pelvis/cortex ratio (P/C ratio) in children presenting with antenatally detected hydronephrosis and determine whether it could be used as a sonographic marker of Pelvi ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. Materials and Methods : All the children presenting with unilateral fetal hydronephrosis (PUJ) between Jan 2007 and March 2008 were included. Ultrasonogram was performed by the same sonologist and P/C ratio was determined by dividing maximum anteroposterior pelvic diameter with maximum cortical thickness. Results : Among a total of 111 children, 87 (78%) improved on conservative management while 24 (22%) required pyeloplasty. The mean (± SD) P/C ratio was 2.7 ± 2.18 in those improved on conservative management while 13.5 ± 1.48 in those who required surgery (P < 0.01). All (22/22) children with P/C ratio of 12 or above required pyeloplasty, while 2/5 with P/C ratio 8-12 and none (0/84) with P/C ratio less than 8 required pyeloplasty (P<0.01). Conclusions : P/C ratio could be used as a marker of PUJ obstruction in children with hydronephrosis.
  6 3,616 173
Ectasia of the rete testis: Beware of this masquerader
Ankur Gadodia, Ankur Goyal, Sanjay Thulkar
October-December 2010, 26(4):593-594
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74475  PMID:21369400
Cystic/tubular ectasia of the rete testis is a rare benign entity and must be differentiated from testicular neoplasm. We report a case of bilateral rete testis-associated epididymal cyst in patient with abdominal mass. Scrotal swelling clinically was interpreted as testicular neoplasm.
  6 7,093 65
Prospective analysis of psychological distress in men being investigated for prostate cancer
Santosh A Jadhav, Sudhir Sukumar, Ginil Kumar, Sanjay H Bhat
October-December 2010, 26(4):490-493
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74436  PMID:21369377
Objectives : To determine the level and prevalence of anxiety and depression in men being investigated for prostate cancer (CaP) and also to identify those aspects of the diagnostic pathway that induces the most stress. Materials and Methods : All patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-B) of the prostate for suspected CaP at our institute between June 2008 and April 2009 were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients completed two questionnaires, prior to their biopsy (HADS1) and before receiving results (HADS2), containing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The data were analyzed and the differences in HADS were compared. Results : A total of 112 men were included in the trial. Two patients could not complete the second part of HADS (HADS2) and were excluded from the study. Prevalence of anxiety among the 110 patients was 43/110 (39.1%). Mean score for anxiety in these 43 patients before biopsy (HADS A1) was 10.74 and score just before receiving the biopsy report (HADS A2) was 11.55. Prevalence of depression before TRUSB (HADS D1) was 21/110 (19.1%) with a mean score of 10.59. Prevalence of depression while awaiting the biopsy report (HADS D2) was 22/110 (20%) with mean score of 10.62. Conclusion : There was a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in our study population and waiting for biopsy results was the most stressful event. Questionnaires such as HADS can identify patients with psychological distress. Minimizing the stress while waiting for a diagnosis should help optimize patient care.
  5 5,291 93
Massive retropubic hematoma after minimal invasive mid-urethral sling procedure in a patient with a corona mortis
Peter Rehder, Bernhard Glodny, Renate Pichler, Michael J Mitterberger
October-December 2010, 26(4):577-579
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74467  PMID:21369394
New and minimal invasive single incision mid-urethral sling procedures are available for treating female stress urinary incontinence. We present a case of a massive retropubic hematoma in a patient with a "corona mortis" artery following a minimal invasive sling procedure. The patient was managed conservatively. The hematoma resolved and the patient remained continent after surgery. Nature and symptoms of sling-related complications should prompt the diagnosis and appropriate postoperative management. One should always be conscious of possible vascular anomalies that might lead to unexpected complications.
  4 4,264 44
Is central obesity, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia associated with high-grade prostate cancer? A descriptive cross-sectional study
Pawni Prabhat, Reshu Tewari, SM Natu, D Dalela, A Goel, P Tandon, MM Goel, K Singh
October-December 2010, 26(4):502-506
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74440  PMID:21369380
Aim : The association of central obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia with higher grade advanced prostate cancer as determined by Gleason grading is not well understood. We evaluated the effect of central obesity waist hip ratio (WHR ≥ 0.9) and biochemical parameters associated with central obesity on Gleason grading in North Indian patients of prostate cancer presenting at advanced stages. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 nondiabetic patients having clinical stages III and IV prostate cancer. Gleason grading on core biopsy samples by histopathology was done and patients were divided in two groups-group1, Gleason score ≥8; group 2, Gleason score <8. WHR along with serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), testosterone, insulin, and lipid profile was done in each patient. Results : The two groups are similar in Age (67.54 years); range (50-80 years). Group 1 men had statistically higher mean WHR (0.96 vs 0.90; P ≤ 0.001), higher mean triglyceride level (201.34 vs 150.52 mg/dL; P=0.0006), higher mean very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) (40.27 vs 30.10 mg/dL; P =0.0006), higher mean insulin (19.49 vs 15.04 μIU/mL; P = 0.0024), and lower mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels (32.39 vs 36.82 mg/dL; P = 0.034) than men in group 2. Serum levels of cholesterol, LDL, and testosterone did not show statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions : This pilot study involving small number of patients indicates that central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia could be associated with high-grade prostate cancer.
  4 3,857 99
Living donor paired-kidney exchange transplantation: A single institution experience
Pranjal Modi, SJ Rizvi, Bipinchandra Pal, Raghuvir Baradwaj, Sandeep Gupta, Veena Shah, Manisha Modi, Pankaj Shah, Hargovind Trivedi
October-December 2010, 26(4):511-514
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74446  PMID:21369382
Introduction : Paired-kidney exchange (PKE) is used in western countries to increase donor pool. In India, there are not many centers involved in PKE program. We present 10 years of this experience and outcome of the recipients. Materials and Methods : Between year 2000 and 2009, 34 transplants with PKE were performed. All donors were live related, and permission from Authorization committee(s) from one or more states was obtained prior to transplantation. Both donor and recipient surgeries were carried out simultaneously in all cases at a single institution. Last 10 donors were offered laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and all other previous donors were operated by open surgery. Results : Five donor−recipient pairs were from the state of Rajasthan, one from Madhya Pradesh, and all others from Gujarat. ABO incompatibility between donor and recipient was present in 12 pairs and positive lymphocyte cross-match in 5 pairs. Conclusion : Paired-kidney-exchange transplantation expands donor pool and total number of transplantation.
  4 4,158 128
Pediatric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Predicting successful outcomes
Sean McAdams, Aseem R Shukla
October-December 2010, 26(4):544-548
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74457  PMID:21369388
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is currently a first-line procedure of most upper urinary tract stones <2 cm of size because of established success rates, its minimal invasiveness and long-term safety with minimal complications. Given that alternative surgical and endourological options exist for the management of stone disease and that ESWL failure often results in the need for repeat ESWL or secondary procedures, it is highly desirable to identify variables predicting successful outcomes of ESWL in the pediatric population. Despite numerous reports and growing experience, few prospective studies and guidelines for pediatric ESWL have been completed. Variation in the methods by which study parameters are measured and reported can make it difficult to compare individual studies or make definitive recommendations. There is ongoing work and a need for continuing improvement of imaging protocols in children with renal colic, with a current focus on minimizing exposure to ionizing radiation, perhaps utilizing advancements in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. This report provides a review of the current literature evaluating the patient attributes and stone factors that may be predictive of successful ESWL outcomes along with reviewing the role of pre-operative imaging and considerations for patient safety.
  4 5,813 236
Villous adenoma of the renal pelvis and ureter
Suresh Bhat, Venu Chandran
October-December 2010, 26(4):598-599
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74478  PMID:21369402
Villous adenoma originating in the urinary tract is a rare condition. Mucus-filled kidney (muconephrosis), one of the manifestations of this condition, occurs due to intestinal type of metaplastic changes occurring in the urothelium. This condition is commonly associated with urolithiasis and/or chronic infection. Concomitant adenocarcinomatous changes in the urothelium may be present along with this and unless a careful search is made to identify this, this serious condition may be overlooked leading to an inappropriate follow-up and dire consequences. We are reporting the third case of muconephrosis due to villous adenomatous changes of the renal pelvis and ureter.
  4 3,168 55
Bilateral simultaneous single-port (LESS) laparoscopic nephrectomy (laparoendoscopic single site surgery)
Toby Page, NA Soomro
October-December 2010, 26(4):590-592
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74473  PMID:21369399
Minimal access surgery is rapidly expanding and currently single-port surgery is at the forefront of laparoscopy. Operating through a single port is technically demanding but through advances in camera design and instrument design, it is now gaining popularity. It offers minimal scar surgery as well as decreased postoperative pain and swift recovery. Here we present a case of bilateral simultaneous single-port laparoscopic nephrectomy (LESS) laparoendoscopic single site surgery in a 51-year-old man. Illustrating that LESS can be used by surgeons with laparoscopic skills outside of a few major international centers.
  3 4,128 31
Preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature
Amilal Bhat, Ajay Gandhi, Gajendra Saxena, Gautam Ram Choudhary
October-December 2010, 26(4):507-510
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74442  PMID:21369381
Aims : Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Materials and Methods : Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plication was added according to the severity of curvature. Feasibility of preputial reconstruction was assessed by applying 3 stay sutures-the first to fix the skin at the corona, the second at the junction of the inner and outer preputial skin for pulling up the skin over the glans, and the third stay on penile skin at the level of the corona for retracting the skin. Preputial reconstruction consisted of a standard 3 layered re-approximation of the margins of the dorsal hood. Results : Age of the patients varied from 10 months to 21 years with an average of 6 years and 4 months. Ventral curvature (mild 10, moderate 13, and severe 4 cases) was corrected by the mobilization of the urethral plate and spongiosum in 14 patients, 11 cases had mobilization of the proximal urethra in addition and 2 patients required single stitch dorsal plication with the above-mentioned steps. Two patients developed urethral fistula and 1 had preputial dehiscence. Conclusions : Preputioplasty with TIP is feasible in proximal hypospadias with curvature without increasing the complication rate. Postoperative phimosis can be prevented by on-table testing of the adequacy of preputial skin by 3 stay sutures.
  3 31,904 155
Does angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism have association with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia?
Hemant Kumar Bid, Parmeet Kaur Manchanda, Rituraj Konwar, Kasif Hanif, V Laxman Nayak, Vishwajeet Singh
October-December 2010, 26(4):497-501
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74438  PMID:21369379
Objectives : The aim of the study was to explore the putative significance of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and its correlation with the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods : ACE I/D polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 200 patients with moderate to severe LUTS due to BPH and 200 patients of same age group without the LUTS having normal size prostate. ACE levels were estimated by spectrophotometer method. Logistic regression models were used to determine the genetic effects using SPSS statistical software (version 12.0). Results and Conclusions : The distribution of genotypes along with allelic frequency and carriage rate did not significantly differ between study and control groups. This study suggests that I/D polymorphisms within the ACE gene are not associated with the presence of LUTS in BPH patients. Future studies in large cohorts are needed that may reveal the spectrum of cellular mechanism mediated by ACE relevant to pathophysiology of BPH and effect of ethnic differences.
  3 3,643 64
Management of ureteric stone in pediatric patients
Eugene Minevich
October-December 2010, 26(4):564-567
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74462  PMID:21369391
The management of ureteral stones in children is becoming more similar to that in adults. A number of factors must be taken into account when selecting one's choice of therapy for ureteral stone in children such as the size of the stone, its location, its composition, and urinary tract anatomy. Endoscopic lithotripsy in children has gradually become a major technique for the treatment of ureteral stones. The stone-free rate following urteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones has been reported in as high as 98.5-100%. The safety and efficacy of Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy make it the intracorporeal lithotriptor of choice. Given its minimally invasive features, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become a primary mode of treatment for the pediatric patients with reno-ureteral stones. Stone-free rates have been reported from 59% to 91% although some patients will require more than one treatment session for stone clearance. It appears that the first-line of therapy in the child with distal and mid-ureteral stones should be ureteroscopic lithotripsy. While ESWL is still widely considered the first-line therapy for proximal ureteral calculi, there is an increasing body of evidence that shows that endoscopic or ESWL are equally safe and efficacious in those clinical scenarios. Familiarity with the full spectrum of endourological techniques facilitates a minimally invasive approach to pediatric ureteral stones.
  3 3,681 197
Current status of retrograde intrarenal surgery for management of nephrolithiasis in children
Yaser El-Hout, Aziza Elnaeema, Walid A Farhat
October-December 2010, 26(4):568-572
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74463  PMID:21369392
Purpose : To review the current status of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for renal stones in children focusing on its indications, outcomes and success in the management of nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods : Between 1988 and 2009, a comprehensive PubMed/MEDLINE literature review on RIRS was conducted. Results : The available literature is limited and heterogeneous, skewed by favorable results on ureteral stone outcomes. However, recent case series report outcomes comparable to time-honored modalities: percutaneous nephrolithotomy and shock wave lithotripsy. Concerns about urinary tract damage are not substantiated by the yet available intermediate-term follow-up. Conclusions : RIRS seems to be an effective modality in pediatric nephrolithiasis management. However, long-term outcomes and comparative prospective randomized studies are awaited.
  3 3,745 216
Sexual function and fertility issues in cases of exstrophy epispadias complex
MS Ansari, RM Cervellione, JP Gearhart
October-December 2010, 26(4):595-597
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74477  PMID:21369401
In patients with EEC, the issues such as sexuality, sexual function and fertility gain more importance once theses patients advance from puberty to adulthood. The aim of this review is to critically examine the available evidence on these issues. A systemic literature search was performed in Medline over the last 25 years using the key words: Exstrophy, sexual function and pregnancy. Search results were limited to studies of patients with exstrophy published in English literature. A total of 1500 publications were found and subsequently screened by title and when appropriate by abstracts. Of these, 40 publications pertinent to the subject were included for the analysis. The publications were supplemented by an additional 15 publications obtained from their bibliographies. The studies were rated according to the guidelines published by the US department of health and human services. Heterosexuality is usually expressed in both the sexes and most of them have adequate sexual function. Urinary diversion in some series seems to result in better ejaculatory hence fertility outcome in male patients. Recent series have shown equally good results with primary reconstruction. Most of the female patients have normal fertility while male patients have significantly low fertility. Most of the male and female patients with EEC have adequate sexual function. Most of the female patients have normal fertility while most of the male patients have significantly low fertility.
  2 3,072 63
Pevis/cortex ratio in pelviureteric junction obstruction
MS Ansari
October-December 2010, 26(4):472-473
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74429  PMID:21369374
  2 2,553 162
Clinical experience with ureteral metal stents
Abdulrahman Al Aown, Kyriazis Iason, Kallidonis Panagiotis, Evangelos N Liatsikos
October-December 2010, 26(4):474-479
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74432  PMID:21369375
Ureteral metal stents (MSs) present a minimally invasive tool to preserve the drainage of renal pelvis whenever ureteral patency is at risk to be obstructed due to extrinsic or intrinsic etiologies. Clinical experience with these stents demonstrates that they impose a promising alternative treatment option in ureteral pathologies that are difficult to be treated via common polymeric stents. Current application of MSs in the treatment of both benign and malignant ureteral obstruction reveals quite promising results. Nevertheless, the ideal MS that would provide uncomplicated long-term effectiveness is still lucking and current MS usage is facing several adverse effects between which stent obstruction, encrustation, infection, migration, and patient discomfort. Ongoing attempts to create more inert stent with sophisticated novel designs are expected to improve current MS efficiency. MSs will play a major role in the future as a routine management of a variety of ureteral pathologies.
  2 4,380 191
Live operative workshop: Education or advertisement
Nitin S Kekre
October-December 2010, 26(4):471-471
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74433  PMID:21369373
  1 2,613 128
Operative management of pediatric urolithiasis
Jiakai Zhu, Timothy M Phillips, Ranjiv I Mathews
October-December 2010, 26(4):536-543
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74454  PMID:21369387
Surgical management of urinary stones in children remains challenging due to the smaller caliber of the urinary tract. Specific instruments have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to pediatric stone management. Endoscopic and percutaneous modalities for stone management have been shown to be as safe and effective in providing stone clearance in children as in adults. Technologies that have been shown to be safe in adults are being miniaturized for use in children. The current literature regarding pediatric urolithiasis was reviewed in an effort to identify trends in operative management. Additionally, techniques used successfully at our institution are described. Although not an exhaustive review of all available modalities and instruments, this review will provide an overview of the current techniques for the management of pediatric urolithiasis.
  1 5,185 240
Pediatric urolithiasis: A challenging problem
MS Ansari
October-December 2010, 26(4):515-515
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74448  PMID:21369383
  1 2,419 170
Hem-o-Lok® clip eroding into the urethra following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: A case report and review of literature
Arvind Ganpule, Divya R Dhawan, Mahesh R Desai
October-December 2010, 26(4):580-581
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74468  PMID:21369395
Hem-o-loc clips have been used for vascular control in laparoscopic surgery. We describe a case presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Evaluation revealed migrated hem-o-loc clips causing obstruction and symptoms in bladder neck region. Clip removal with endoscopy relieved the symptoms. Diagnosis warrants high index of suspicion as clips are radiolucent and other more common differential diagnosis like bladder neck contracture may have similar presentation. For the prevention, loose clips should be actively searched for and retrieved from abdomen and clip application near proposed anastomotic site should be avoided.
  - 4,366 43
Urofacial syndrome: A subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes?
KN Stamatiou, CD Karakos
October-December 2010, 26(4):582-584
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74469  PMID:21369396
The urofacial syndrome is probably a subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes characterized by detrusor-sphincter discoordination along with a characteristic inversion of facial expression with laughing. This characteristic facial expression can facilitate early detection of this disorder, which leads to poor bladder emptying with high residual urine, hydro-nephrosis with vesico-ureteral reflux and potentially renal failure if left untreated. The etiology of the urofacial syndrome is unknown. In our case, a 12-year-old boy of Middle-Eastern origin presented to the Outpatient Department of our hospital with left pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis and bladder dilatation. Voiding cystourethrography performed 15 days later revealed left vesicoureteral reflux. Cystoscopy revealed bladder trabeculation however an anatomic urethral obstruction was not noticed. Both, neurological examination and radiography of the lumbosacral spine were normal. Urodynamic evaluation revealed the typical findings of detrusor-sphincter discoordination.
  - 3,540 54
Symptomatic intracranial metastasis in penile carcinoma
Aliasgar V Moiyadi, Hemant B Tongaonkar, Ganesh K Bakshi
October-December 2010, 26(4):585-586
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74471  PMID:21369397
Distant metastases in penile cancers are rare, especially metachronous symptomatic intracranial metastasis. A middle-aged patient presented to us with an intracranial mass 2 years after being treated for penile cancer. Given the rarity of metastasis and the diagnostic dilemma along with the need for relief of neurological symptoms, it was excised and found to be a metastatic deposit. We discuss the case and review the relevant literature.
  - 3,713 42
Bilateral synchronous seminoma with bilateral cryptorchidism of the testis
Sushma Agrawal, Ranjeet Bajpai, RK Agrawal, TC Gupta
October-December 2010, 26(4):587-589
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74472  PMID:21369398
Synchronous bilateral germ cell tumo (BGCT) of the testis is rare and its association with bilateral cryptorchidism is even rarer. We report one case of BGCT of testis with bilateral cryptorchidism who presented as blunt injury abdomen in emergencyand was not diagnosed preoperatively. Postoperatively after an appropriate diagnosis, he was managed with chemotherapy. In this report, we have reviewed the larger series of BGCT for the presentation and management of synchronous BGCT to derive some conclusions.
  - 3,130 63
Etiopathogenesis and management of bladder dysfunction in patients with posterior urethral valves
Joseph Thomas
October-December 2010, 26(4):480-489
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74434  PMID:21369376
Posterior urethral valves are the commonest cause of urethral obstruction in a male child. It has significant effects on the development of upper urinary tracts and in the evolution of urinary bladder function. The effect on the kidneys and the urinary bladder persists even after the successful management of the obstructing valves. A detailed evaluation of the associated bladder dysfunction will help in planning management protocols that will improve the long-term outcome of these patients.
  - 8,192 655
Evaluation of pediatric nephrolithiasis
Paul J Kokorowski, Katherine Hubert, Caleb P Nelson
October-December 2010, 26(4):531-535
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74453  PMID:21369386
Nephrolithiasis in the pediatric population is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. Presenting signs and symptoms are often considerably different from those in adults. Vague abdominal pain, hematuria, and urinary tract infection are more common in children than the classic colicky flank pain. Imaging of suspected cases should be undertaken with careful consideration of diagnostic accuracy and the potentially harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Because children with nephrolithiasis have a high chance of recurrent stone formation, a thorough risk assessment and metabolic evaluation should be performed. This review discusses the presentation, acute evaluation and risk assessment of nephrolithiasis in the pediatric population.
  - 4,674 370
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for pediatric urolithiasis
Arvind P Ganpule, Shashikant Mishra, Mahesh R Desai
October-December 2010, 26(4):549-554
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74458  PMID:21369389
Pediatric urolithiasis is a management dilemma as a number of treatment options are available such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). PCNL offers good clearance rates in a single hospital stay. The concerns with PCNL include the use of large instrument in pediatric kidneys, parenchymal damage and the associated effects on renal function, radiation exposure with fluoroscopy, and the risk of major complications including sepsis and bleeding. Evolution of pediatric PCNL technique such as miniaturization of instruments, limitation of tract size and advanced intracorporeal lithotripters have resulted in this technique being widely utilized for achieving stone-free status in appropriate patients. Many of the patients in our country come from remote areas thereby requiring special considerations during treatment. This also necessitates complete clearance in a single shorter hospital stay. PCNL appears to be the optimal option available in this scenario. The literature suggests that even complex and staghorn calculi can be tackled with this approach. The choice of the method to gain access is a matter of experience and personal preference. Ultrasound offers the advantage of visualization of spleen, liver and avoids injury. Miniaturization of instruments, particularly smaller nephroscopes and the potential to use lasers will decrease the morbidity and improve the clearance rates further. In this article, we analyze the management of pediatric urolithiasis with PCNL. We discuss our technique and analyze the results, complications and technique mentioned in the contemporary literature.
  - 4,160 264
Ureteroscopy: The standard of care in the management of upper tract urolithiasis in children
Pramod P Reddy, William R DeFoor
October-December 2010, 26(4):555-563
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.74459  PMID:21369390
Objectives : Advances in technology and the continued evolution in the design of ureteroscopes now permit a primary endoscopic approach to the upper urinary tract of pediatric patients on a routine basis to treat a diverse group of conditions that include urolithiasis, hematuria and strictures. The purpose of this review article is to demonstrate that ureteroscopic lithotripsy is now to be considered the standard of care in the management of upper tract urolithiasis in the pediatric patient, replacing shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) as the first line of therapy. Additionally, the article will discuss the available endoscopic equipment and the lessons learned over the years to optimize the success of these procedures in children. Materials and Methods : A systematic review of articles written about ureteroscopy (URS) in the contemporary urological literature (1990-2009) on PubMed was undertaken. The success rates and complications of pediatric ureteroscopic procedures were abstracted from the identified publications and the results were tabulated and compared with the success rates of shockwave lithotripsy. Results : In over 832 URS cases, there was a 5.9% complication rate and a stone-free rate of 93.4%. The stone-free rates of URS are superior to those obtained with the published success rates with ESWL of 80.3% in 1,839 cases. Conclusions : The safety and outcomes of ureteroscopic lithotripsy in the management of pediatric urolithiasis now justify that this treatment modality be considered the standard of care and first line of therapy in the management of children who present with upper tract stones.
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