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   2007| July-September  | Volume 23 | Issue 3  
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Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats
MR Sailani, H Moeini
July-September 2007, 23(3):257-260
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33720  PMID:19718326
Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00) in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.
  16 11,456 619
Marginal kidney donor
Ganesh Gopalakrishnan, Siva Prasad Gourabathini
July-September 2007, 23(3):286-293
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33726  PMID:19718332
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.
  13 19,511 1,045
Adrenal angiomyolipoma: A rare entity
Rajesh Godara, MG Vashist, Sham L Singla, Pradeep Garg, Jyotsena Sen, SK Mathur, Anshu Gupta
July-September 2007, 23(3):319-320
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33734  PMID:19718340
Angiomyolipoma is apparently a part of a family of neoplasms that derive from perivascular epitheloid cells. It is a rare mesenchymal tumor, usually found in the kidney. Extrarenal angiomyolipoma is uncommon and the most common extrarenal site is the liver. Only two cases of adrenal angiomyolipoma are reported in English literature. Authors wish to add one more case to world literature. Because of its large size and symptomatic presentation of extremely rare tumor merits documentation.
  11 6,254 216
Radio-median cubital / radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula at elbow to prevent vascular steal syndrome associated with brachiocephalic fistula: Review of 320 cases
Anant Kumar, Mrigank S Jha, Manish Singla, Nitin Gupta, Pamposh Raina, Deepak Dubey, Aneesh Srivastava
July-September 2007, 23(3):261-264
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33721  PMID:19718327
Aim: Radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) at wrist is the vascular access of choice for dialysis. In the absence of a suitable vein at the wrist, a brachiocephalic fistula at elbow is usually constructed. In order to avoid the complication of vascular steal syndrome associated with the brachiocephalic fistula, an alternative operative technique involving the creation of radio-median cubital vein / radiocephalic fistula at elbow was evaluated. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Between January 1990 and October 2005, 320 patients underwent creation of radio-median cubital vein / radiocephalic AVF at elbow as a primary procedure or following failure of a fistula at the wrist. A transverse skin incision was made 4cm below the elbow crease, centering in line with the brachial artery pulsation. The median cubital vein / cephalic vein was anastomosed to the radial artery in end to side fashion. The surgical complications and patency of the fistulae were analyzed in the immediate and late postoperative period. Results: Mean operative time was 55 7.15 min. There were no major intraoperative complications. Immediate patency and a palpable distal radial pulse were present in all the patients. Mean time to fistula maturation was 26 5.2 days. No patient developed a vascular steal syndrome at a median follow-up of 54 months (range 12-168 months) Early fistula failure was seen in 16 (5%) patients whereas eight (2.5%) fistulas failed at a later date. Pseudoaneurysm of the arterialized vein at the fistula site developed in only one (0.3%) patient. Pseudoaneurysm proximal to the anastomosis developed in three (0.9%) patients. Sixteen (5%) patients requested for closure of the fistula following successful renal transplant due to unsightly dilated veins and continuous noisy murmur disturbing their sleep. Conclusions: The radio-median cubital vein / radiocephalic AV fistula at elbow is safe and is a better vascular access procedure for hemodialysis than brachiocephalic fistula because it leads to the dilatation of both the cephalic and the basilic veins with no incidence of vascular steal phenomenon in our experience. Patency and flow rates are similar to brachiocephalic fistula.
  9 12,338 403
Testicular ischemia following mesh hernia repair and acute prostatitis
Pepe Pietro, Aragona Francesco
July-September 2007, 23(3):323-325
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33736  PMID:19718342
We present a case of a man admitted to our Hospital for right acute scrotum that six months before had undergone a right hernioplasty with mesh implantation. Clinical history and testicular color Doppler sonography (CDS) patterns suggested an orchiepididymitis following acute prostatitis. After 48h the clinical picture worsened and testicular CDS showed a decreased telediastolic velocity that suggested testicular ischemia. The patient underwent surgical exploration: spermatic cord appeared stretched by an inflammatory tissue in absence of torsion and releasing of spermatic cord was performed. In patients with genitourinary infection who previously underwent inguinal mesh implantation, testicular CDS follow-up is mandatory.
  6 14,337 226
Single-centre experience of laparoscopic nephrectomy: Impact of learning curve on outcome
Mrigank S Jha, Nitin Gupta, Saurabh Agrawal, MS Ansari, Deepak Dubey, Anil Mandhani, Aneesh Srivastava, Anant Kumar, Rakesh Kapoor
July-September 2007, 23(3):253-256
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33719  PMID:19718325
Aim: To present our experience of laparoscopic nephrectomies done for benign and malignant conditions; and the impact of learning curve on outcome. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Between January 2000 and September 2006, 396 laparoscopic nephrectomies were performed at our institute for various benign and malignant conditions. These included 250 simple nephrectomies, 48 nephroureterectomies, 95 radical nephrectomies, two partial nephrectomies and one hemi-nephrectomy. For the purpose of self-evaluation, we have divided our experience into two groups. Group 1 (learning phase) comprised the first 100 cases; Group 2 (consolidation phase) comprised cases performed after the initial learning phase. Retrospective evaluation of the case records was done to evaluate the differences in the operative and postoperative outcome. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's 't' test using SPSS 14.0 software. Results: Demographic profile of the patients and relative indications of procedures performed were similar in the two groups. Mean operative time in Group 1 was 262 37 min, which reduced to 184 44 min in Group 2 ( P <0.001). Mean operative blood loss was 310 58 ml and 198 88 ml ( P <0.001); and blood transfusion was required in 38% and 13.5% of patients ( P <0.001) of Group 1 and Group 2 respectively. There was a significant reduction in the intraoperative and postoperative complications from 16% in Group 1 to 3.4% in Group 2 ( P <0.001). Similarly, conversion to an open procedure was required in 17% cases of Group 1 and 5.4% cases of Group 2 ( P <0.01). Conclusions: Laparoscopic nephrectomy is a viable option which can be performed safely with increasing experience.
  5 4,470 190
Indian transplant registry
Sunil Shroff
July-September 2007, 23(3):272-277
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33724  PMID:19718330
An 'Indian transplant registry' has been established over the past two years due to the efforts of the Indian Society of Organ Transplantation. This society is about 20 years old with over 450 members who are doctors and basic scientist. The registry is currently in the first phase of its development and can be partly viewed at The endeavor has been undertaken with the objective of having a centralized repository of information of the various transplants that are being undertaken in India. In its first phase of the registry 'Fast Fact' retrospective short datasets are being captured that include the essential details of the transplant programme. The fast fact data includes the number of transplant done yearly, the sex ratio and type of transplant. So far thirteen major institutional data has been entered in the registry. In the second phase of the registry, over twenty fields are likely to be captured and all member institutions would be encouraged to enter the data prospectively. In the third phase data would be derived with ongoing audit features.. The society and its members have supported the formation of the registry and are enthusiastic about its potential.
  5 6,097 395
Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder
Shashi K Mishra, V Muthu, Mohan M Rajapurkar, Mahesh R Desai
July-September 2007, 23(3):299-304
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33728  PMID:19718334
Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome.
  5 7,275 541
The potential advantages of transplanting organs from pig to man: A transplant Surgeon's view
Carl G Groth
July-September 2007, 23(3):305-310
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33729  PMID:19718335
Once pig organs can be transplanted into humans, transplantation will move into a new era. There will be unlimited access to undamaged organs and cells for transplantation and, eventually, donation from deceased or live human beings will become obsolete. Furthermore, it will be possible to alleviate graft rejection, at least in part, by genetic modification of the source animal. Currently, there are three major obstacles to performing transplantations from pig to man: 1) a powerful immune barrier, 2) a potential risk of transmitting microorganisms, particularly endogenous retrovirus and 3) ethical issues related to the future recipients and to society at large. This article will first discuss ongoing work with regards to overcoming the current obstacles. Then, the many potential advantages of using pig organs will be listed. Next, the criteria for selecting the first patients for transplantation with pig organs, will be briefly discussed. Finally, some promising observations made in the context of early attempts at transplanting porcine cells to patients, will be mentioned.
  5 28,972 560
Testicular microlithiasis: Is there an agreed protocol?
R Shanmugasundaram, J Chandra Singh, Nitin S Kekre
July-September 2007, 23(3):234-239
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33442  PMID:19718320
This review addresses the issues on etiopathogenesis of testicular microlithiasis (TM), associated clinical entities, evaluation and follow-up of patients with TM. A literature search of Medline/PubMed was carried out using the keywords 'testicular microlithiasis' and 'testicular calcifications' for published data in English language on TM from 1970 to 2006. TM is an uncommon entity among adult males, resulting from intratubular calcifications. The reported incidence of TM is highly variable. With the increasing frequency of ultrasound examination in scrotal and testicular conditions and with the advent of high frequency transducers, TM is increasingly being reported. TM is associated with many benign and malignant conditions of testes but the possible association of TM with testicular cancer has been a matter of concern. Though a few sporadic cases of testicular malignancies have been reported, it is believed that a conservative approach is warranted in the absence of high risk factors, in view of the low risks for invasive cancers. There is no uniform protocol for the evaluation and follow-up of the patients with TM. Those with high risk factors like contralateral testicular tumour, chromosomal anomalies, gonadal dysgenesis, cryptorchidism and definite ultrasound pattern of TM should be advised to have further evaluation. Incidentally detected asymptomatic TM during ultrasound examination does not warrant aggressive measures and it can be followed with self examination.
  4 13,323 512
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease diagnosed in fetus
Joseph Thomas, AP Manjunath, Lavanya Rai, Ranjini Kudva
July-September 2007, 23(3):328-329
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33738  PMID:19718344
  4 12,776 265
Stress urinary incontinence after male to female gender reassignment surgery: Successful use of a pubo-vaginal sling
Pankaj P Dangle, Simon C.W Harrison
July-September 2007, 23(3):311-313
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33731  PMID:19718337
The case of a 50-year-old patient who had undergone male to female gender reassignment surgery is presented. She presented with mixed incontinence with symptoms of stress incontinence predominating. Initial conservative treatment was unsuccessful and subsequent videourodynamic assessment demonstrated urodynamic stress incontinence in association with a partially open bladder neck at rest. Also noted during the study was cough-induced detrusor overactivity. The option of inserting a pubo-vaginal sling using autologous rectus sheath was chosen. The procedure proved to be straightforward to perform and was uncomplicated. Subsequent follow-up demonstrated a resolution of her stress incontinence.
  3 5,869 181
Robotic surgery: India is not ready yet
Girish G Nelivigi
July-September 2007, 23(3):240-245
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33443  PMID:19718321
Robotic surgery is one of the most significant advances in urology in recent years. It promises to make urological surgeries safer with far superior results as compared to laparoscopic or open surgeries. It holds great promise for the surgeons and patients alike. However like any other technological advance, it too comes with a heavy price tag. Aggressive marketing by the manufacturers and urologists may lead to unethical practices. This article analyses the applicability of robotics to urology and India in particular taking into consideration the financial aspects involved. At present, the scope for robotics in India is limited because of cost considerations. The future of robotic surgery in India also will depend on the same factor.
  3 9,275 398
The mixed epithelial stromal tumor of the kidney: A recently recognized entity
Gaurav Gupta, Santosh Kumar, Jayalakshmi Panicker, Anila Korula
July-September 2007, 23(3):326-327
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33737  PMID:19718343
  3 5,525 218
Penile metastasis from primay mucinous adenocarcinoma of bladder
Siddalingeshwar Neeli, Vikram Prabha, Sharan Alur, Prakash Malur
July-September 2007, 23(3):314-316
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33732  PMID:19718338
Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is not common. Though penile metastases from transitional cell carcinoma are reported, such metastases from adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder is unknown. We report a 55-year-old male having penile metastasis from primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of bladder.
  2 4,961 167
Robotic surgery: India is not ready yet
Vipul Patel
July-September 2007, 23(3):244-245
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33717  PMID:19718322
  2 3,446 173
Surgical resection for locally invasive renal cell carcinoma: Is it worthwhile?
Suraj Manjunath, C Ramachandra, Vijayashree Murthy, Prashanth S Murthy, PS Prabhakaran, V. Satya Suresh Attili
July-September 2007, 23(3):246-249
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33444  PMID:19718323
Background: Many patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) present with disease involving the adjacent viscera. Although survival in such patients is poor, surgery remains the only proven modality of treatment. We describe our experience with radical nephrectomy for locally invasive RCC over a five-year period. Study Design: A retrospective analysis of the records of all patients who had undergone surgery for locally invasive RCC between January 1999 and December 2004 at our institute. Materials and Methods: During the study period, 102 patients with RCC underwent surgery at our institute, out of which 18 (17.6%) patients had adjacent organ involvement. The survival and outcomes in terms of symptom relief are described. Statistical Analysis: The survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method using EGRET statistical software package. Results: Of the 18 patients, two patients had inoperable disease. Fifteen out of the 18 patients succumbed to their disease after a median period of 7.5 months. Three patients are still alive, having survived for 13, 16 and 25 months. Most patients derived considerable benefit with respect to relief of symptoms, which was long-lasting. Conclusion: For selected patients with locally invasive RCC, radical nephrectomy with en bloc resection of involved organs may provide the opportunity for long-term survival. In others, it may provide considerable symptomatic relief.
  2 5,634 251
Evaluating systematic reviews in urology: A practical guide
Prathap Tharyan
July-September 2007, 23(3):224-233
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33441  PMID:19718319
Systematic reviews of good quality randomized controlled trials that have little heterogeneity (variability) are considered to provide the best source of evidence for the efficacy of interventions in healthcare. With the recent national provision for access to The Cochrane Library to all residents in India, urologists and other clinicians now have access to this reliable source of regularly updated systematic reviews. This article uses six systematic reviews relevant to urologists from The Cochrane Library produced by different collaborative review groups in The Cochrane Collaboration to illustrate the methods used to minimize bias, improve transparency and provide reliable estimates of treatment effects. Issues in evaluating results, especially when subsequent trials produce discrepant results, are discussed.
  2 6,498 474
Renal transplantation: An update
Aneesh Srivastava
July-September 2007, 23(3):270-271
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33723  PMID:19718329
  1 3,285 264
Emphysematous pyelonephritis with calculus: Management strategies
Tanmaya Goel, Sreedhar Reddy, Joseph Thomas
July-September 2007, 23(3):250-252
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33718  PMID:19718324
Objective: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) with calculus is well recognized but with very few reports on its treatment. Our aim is to elucidate our experience in its successful management. Materials and Methods: Over four years, we diagnosed seven cases (eight renal units) of EPN, out of which two patients (three renal units) had EPN with urinary calculi. After the initial conservative management of EPN, the stones were tackled appropriately. Results: EPN was initially managed effectively with antibiotics and supportive care. Once the patient was stable, the stones were cleared in a step-wise fashion. The associated postoperative complications were also tackled efficiently with preservation of renal function. Conclusion: In EPN with stones, nephrectomy is not the sole option available and they can be effectively managed with open / endoscopic measures.
  1 5,949 391
Transperitoneal laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy: Current status
A Srivastava, N Gupta, Anant Kumar, Rakesh Kapoor, Deepak Dubey
July-September 2007, 23(3):294-298
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33727  PMID:19718333
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient with end stage renal disease. Unfortunately, the supply of donor organs is greatly exceeded by demand. In many countries the use of kidneys from living donors has been widely adopted as a partial solution. Traditionally donor nephrectomy has been performed via a open flank incision however with some morbidity like pain and a loin scar. Currently, the donor nephrectomy is increasingly being performed laparoscopically with the objective of reducing the morbidity. It is also hoped that this will lead to increasing acceptance of living donation. The first minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy was carried out in 1995 at the Johns Hopkins Medical Center and since then many centers have undertaken laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy. The laparoscopic approach substantially reduces the donor morbidity and wound related problems associated with open nephrectomy. The laparoscopic techniques thus have the potential to increase the number of living kidney donors. The present article attempts to review the safety and efficacy of transperitoneal laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.
  1 4,816 291
Chronic urinary retention in eunuchs
Sujata Patwardhan, Ajit Sawant, M Nagabhushana, Radheshyam Varma, Mohammed Ismail
July-September 2007, 23(3):317-318
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33733  PMID:19718339
Eunuchs seek medical attention only when extremely distressed by symptoms. No scientific publication has highlighted the medical problems of eunuchs in India till date, probably because of lack of access to this community and their reluctance in seeking medical help. We evaluated four eunuchs in the last three years with chronic retention of urine due to urethral stenosis, caused by an incorrect method of amputation of the penis and urethra. Though the management of the problem is simple, the article highlights the traditional method of castration and penectomy which is practiced in Indian eunuchs which leads to urethral stenosis.
  - 11,183 331
Carcinoma penis: How late can inguinal nodal metastases occur?
Anil Kamath, TB Yuvaraja, HB Tongaonkar, S Kane
July-September 2007, 23(3):321-322
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33735  PMID:19718341
Inguinal nodal metastasis is the single most important prognostic factor for survival in a patient with carcinoma penis. In patients without inguinal lymph nodal metastasis at presentation, options include close surveillance or prophylactic inguinal lymph nodal dissection. The majority of patients on surveillance who develop inguinal nodal metastases do so within two to three years of treatment of the primary. Here we report a case who developed inguinal nodal metastasis 10 years after the treatment of primary. This raises questions about the natural history and biology of the disease, the optimum surveillance and whether a patient of carcinoma penis can ever be considered risk-free for metastasis.
  - 4,693 168
Renal transplantation: Challenges ahead
Nitin S Kekre
July-September 2007, 23(3):223-223
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33716  PMID:19718318
  - 2,991 208
The 'greater good': Critical notes
An Ravelingien
July-September 2007, 23(3):309-310
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33730  PMID:19718336
  - 2,854 122
Poorly functioning kidneys with uretero- pelvic junction block
Yogesh Kumar Sarin
July-September 2007, 23(3):330-330
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33739  PMID:19718345
  - 2,703 134
Authors' reply
Rakesh Kapoor, Pratipal Singh
July-September 2007, 23(3):330-330
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33740  PMID:19718346
  - 2,324 99
Is Euro-Collins better than ringer lactate in live related donor renal transplantation?
G Siva Prasad, Chacko N Ninan, Antony Devasia, Lionel Gnanaraj, Nitin S Kekre, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
July-September 2007, 23(3):265-269
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33722  PMID:19718328
Objectives: Euro-Collins and University of Wisconsin are preferred solutions in cadaveric renal transplantation. There are no guidelines regarding the perfusion fluids in live donor renal transplantation. We studied whether Euro-Collins was better than Ringer lactate in terms of protecting allograft function. Materials and Methods: A double-blind permuted randomized trial comparing Euro-Collins and Ringer lactate was performed on 100 patients undergoing live related donor renal transplantation. Outcome variable was serum creatinine. Results: Age, sex, donor nephrectomy and ischemia times, kidney temperature, time of first appearance of urine was not significantly different in both the groups. Fall in serum creatinine was significantly more in Euro-Collins than Ringer lactate in the first postoperative week ( P -<0.05). The time to reach nadir creatinine was 4.97 days in Euro-Collins and 7.75 days in the Ringer lactate group ( P -0.088). Serum creatinine was significantly lower in the Euro-Collins group till six months, thereafter it equalized with Ringer lactate. When individual parameters were analyzed for time to nadir creatinine, only the cold ischemia time of > 80 min was found to be significant ( P -0.024). Twelve kidneys in Euro-Collins and 17 in the Ringer lactate group had cold ischemia times of ≥80 min and time to nadir creatinine was 4.33 3.74 and 12.76 12.68 days ( P -0.035). Conclusions: Renal function normalized rapidly when Euro-Collins was used. Cold ischemia time of ≥ 80 min was the most important factor affecting the graft function and perfusing with Euro-Collins could protect the allograft.
  - 4,967 231
Pertinent issues in pretransplant recipient workup
Pranjal Modi
July-September 2007, 23(3):278-285
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.33725  PMID:19718331
Renal transplantation is recognized as the treatment of choice in most patients with end-stage renal disease. The evaluation of the candidate for kidney transplantation has been the recent subject of clinical practice guidelines published by the European Renal Association- European Dialysis Transplant Association and the American Society of Transplantation. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature for urological evaluation and treatment of patients prior to renal transplantation. In India, urologists are involved in evaluating not only the genitourinary problems but also vascular access and, vascular anatomy and pathology especially related to major pelvic vessels. Hence, evaluation of the transplant recipient should include assessment of vascular access for hemodialysis, access for peritoneal dialysis, assessment of pelvic vessels to which renal allograft vessels need to be anastomosed and genitourinary system. In addition, review of the serological tests for infective viral diseases like hepatitis and human immunodeficiency viruses should always be done before starting clinical evaluation. A note of the evaluation performed by other specialists like nephrologist, cardiologist, endocrinologist, pulmonologist, anesthetist etc. should always be reviewed.
  - 8,069 527
Should small renal masses be managed expectantly?
Manish Singla, Aneesh Srivastava
July-September 2007, 23(3):331-332
  - 4,182 127
Temsirolimus, interferon alfa or both in advanced renal-cell carcinoma: One plus one does not always equal two
S Grover, JC Singh, NS Kekre
July-September 2007, 23(3):332-333
  - 2,568 146
Can Reflex UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization predict tumor recurrence during follow-up?
Annamma Kurien, Joseph Thomas
July-September 2007, 23(3):333-334
  - 2,755 124
Does dutasteride reduce perioperative blood loss and postoperative complications after transurethral resection of the prostate?
R Shanmugasundaram, J Chandra Singh, Nitin S Kekre
July-September 2007, 23(3):334-335
  - 3,839 270
Vaginal mucosal vaccine for recurrent urinary tract infections
Gagan Gautam, Rakesh Khera
July-September 2007, 23(3):335-336
  - 4,206 189
Can suppressive antibiotics be avoided in the postnatal management of antenatally detected obstructive hydronephrosis?
Sreedhar V Reddy, Arun Chawla, Joseph Thomas
July-September 2007, 23(3):337-338
  - 3,117 176
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