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   2007| January-March  | Volume 23 | Issue 1  
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Urology in ancient India
Sakti Das
January-March 2007, 23(1):2-5
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30253  PMID:19675749
The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.
  10 10,297 496
Laparoscopic resection of a leiomyoma of the seminal vesicle
Bernard Lallemand, Philippe Busard, Frederic Leduc, Roland Vaesen
January-March 2007, 23(1):70-71
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30272  PMID:19675768
We present a case of a leiomyoma of the seminal vesicle that occurred in a 52-year-old man who presented with symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction. Prostate-specific antigen was within normal limit. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the patient's right seminal vesicle. Laparoscopic excision of the seminal vesicle tumor was performed successfully. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the fourth postoperative day.
  9 5,411 152
Open nephron-sparing surgery in renal tumors with normal contralateral kidney: A single centre experience of 8 years
NP Gupta, A Kumar, AK Hemal, PN Dogra, A Seth, R Kumar
January-March 2007, 23(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30259  PMID:19675755
Introduction: We present our eight-year experience with open nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) in renal tumors with contralateral normal kidney to assess its oncological efficacy and safety. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients undergoing open NSS for small localized renal tumors with normal contralateral kidney from January 1998 to August 2006 were studied regarding demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics along with long-term follow-up. Results: The mean age was 48.28 9.5 years. The mean tumor size was 3.72 cm (range 1.5-6). The following surgeries were performed: Wedge resection-13, partial polar nephrectomy-15, segmental resection-eight. The following techniques were used for vascular control: clamping and cooling-eight, warm ischemia-12, a novel technique of serial encirclage-16. The mean warm ischemia time was 23.2 3.2 min. The mean operating time was 190.07 11.3 min. The mean estimated blood loss was 331 17.4 ml. The majority of renal tumors were renal cell carcinoma (97.22%). There were no positive surgical margins. There were no major intraoperative and postoperative complications. The mean follow up was 52.1 months (range 4-80) with no case showing progression to renal insufficiency (defined as serum creatinine > 2 mg/dl). There was only one local recurrence. However, four distant metastases were reported. The five-year cancer-specific survival, recurrence-free survival and overall survival were 94.4%, 88.88% and 86.11% respectively. Conclusions : In patients with solitary, small localized, unilateral renal tumors with normal contralateral kidney, elective open NSS is feasible, safe and provides excellent long-term local control and oncological efficacy with functional benefits.
  7 4,681 210
Comparison of endopyelotomy and laparoscopic pyeloplasty for poorly functioning kidneys with ureteropelvic junction obstruction
Pratipal Singh, Rakesh Kapoor, Amit Suri, Kamal Jeet Singh, Anil Mandhani, Deepak Dubey, Aneesh Srivastava, Anant Kumar
January-March 2007, 23(1):9-12
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30255  PMID:19675751
Endopyelotomy and laparoscopic pyeloplasty are established procedures for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and historically a high failure rate has been observed in poorly functioning units with UPJ obstruction. The aim of this study is to compare the results of laparoscopic pyeloplasty with endopyelotomy in poorly functioning renal units, i.e., GFR under 25 ml/min. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all the patients who underwent either laparoscopic pyeloplasty or endopyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction in poorly functioning units between January 1998 and June 2005 was done. Follow-up renal scans, done at three, six, 12 months and yearly thereafter, were studied. Success was defined as symptomatic relief and/or improvement in function (10% over baseline) in renal scan. Results: There were 23 patients in the endopyelotomy group and 15 patients in the laparoscopic pyeloplasty group with mean age of 25.3 years (9-53) and 26 years (10-44), respectively. Mean pelvic volume was 41.2 8cc 9.5 and 39.1cc 9.85 in the endopyelotomy group and laparoscopic pyeloplasty group, respectively. Mean preoperative GFR was 17.4 5.7 ml/min and 21 4.5 ml/min in the endopyelotomy group and laparoscopic pyeloplasty group, respectively and mean postoperative GFR was 21 3.5 ml/min and 22 3.9 ml/min, respectively. Eighteen and 11 patients were symptomatic in ethe ndopyelotomy group and laparoscopic pyeloplasty group, respectively while symptomatic improvement was seen in 14 and 11 patients, respectively. Mean follow-up was 12 months in the laparoscopy group and 28 months in the endopyelotomy group. Success rate was better for laparoscopic surgery group (15/15 = 100%) than for endopyelotomy (18/23 = 78.26%). Conclusions: Though the improvement in renal function is less in patients with UPJO with poorly functioning kidneys undergoing endopyelotomy or laparoscopic pyeloplasty, laparoscopic pyeloplasty gives better results in the form of symptomatic relief; however, renal function remains stable whichever the approach chosen.
  6 5,955 244
Adrenal oncocytoma masquerading as a functional tumor
Tanmaya Goel, Joseph Thomas, Shveta Garg, Anuradha CK Rao, Sreedhar Reddy
January-March 2007, 23(1):77-78
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30275  PMID:19675771
Adrenal oncocytoma is a rare entity, with 20 cases reported in literature. A functional oncocytoma is extremely rare. We present a case of adrenal oncocytoma in a hypertensive male who had elevated catecholamine levels, which improved after adrenalectomy with decrease in daily antihypertensive requirement.
  5 4,567 163
Hernia uterine inguinale with transverse testicular ectopia and mixed germ cell tumor
Rajshekhar C Jaka, M Shankar
January-March 2007, 23(1):75-76
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30274  PMID:19675770
Persistent mullerian duct syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of uterus and fallopian tube in 46XY phenotypic males and is ascribed to defects in the synthesis or action of anti-mullerian hormone. We report a rare case of hernia uterine inguinale, transverse testicular ectopia associated with mixed germ cell tumor of the testis with metastasis. Transverse testicular ectopia should be suspected preoperatively in patients who have unilateral inguinal hernia associated with contralateral nonpalpable testis. In such cases ultrasonography should be done prior to repair of hernia to evaluate the possible presence of mullerian structures and testicular malignancy, for better management.
  4 5,654 193
Pathogenesis of prostate cancer and hormone refractory prostate cancer
JS Girling, HC Whitaker, IG Mills, DE Neal
January-March 2007, 23(1):35-42
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30265  PMID:19675761
Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy in males and the leading cause of cancer death. Prostate cancer is initially androgen dependent and relies upon the androgen receptor (AR) to mediate the effects of androgens. The AR is also the target for therapy using antiandrogens and LHRH analogues. However, all cancers eventually become androgen independent, often referred to as hormone refractory prostate cancer. The processes involved in this transformation are yet to be fully understood but research in this area has discovered numerous potential mechanisms including AR amplification, over-expression or mutation and alterations in the AR signaling pathway. This review of the recent literature examines the current knowledge and developments in the understanding of the molecular biology of prostate cancer and hormone refractory prostate cancer, summarizing the well characterized pathways involved as well as introducing new concepts that may offer future solutions to this difficult problem.
  4 11,265 831
Nephron sparing surgery: A single institution experience
S Agrawal, MS Jha, N Khurana, MSA Ansari, D Dubey, A Srivastava, R Kapoor, A Kumar, M Jain, A Mandhani
January-March 2007, 23(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30260  PMID:19675756
Objective: To report our experience in managing various benign and malignant renal tumors with nephron-sparing surgery. Materials and Methods : Records of patients who underwent nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) either through open or laparoscopic approach between May 1997 and June 2006 at our institution were reviewed. Patient and tumor-related characteristics, treatment modality and complications were noted. Results : There were 26 patients (29 renal units), including three with bilateral lesions who underwent nephron-sparing surgery. Mean age at surgery was 47.0 years (range 16-67 years). Mean tumor size was 4.7 cm (range 2-7.5 cm). Mean warm ischemia time was 41 min and 32.5 min, operative time 158 min and 186 min and blood loss 200ml and 85 ml in open (n=24) and laparoscopic approach (n=2) respectively. Complications were seen in five (19.2%) patients of whom two had postoperative bleeding requiring nephrectomy in one and angioembolization in another. One patient with persistent urinary leak required intervention. Local wound infection in one patient and incisional hernia in another were surgically managed. Histopathological profile revealed 13 (44.8%) benign lesions which included angiomyolipoma (eight), simple cyst (two), cortical adenoma (one), metanephric adenoma (one) and myelolipoma (one). The remaining 16 (55.2%) malignant lesions included renal cell carcinoma (15) and metastatic adenocarcinoma (one). At a mean follow-up of 38.6 months (range 1-91) no patient had local recurrence or distant metastasis. Cancer-specific survival was 100% and overall survival was 92.3%. Conclusions: Nephron-sparing surgery is a safe and effective alternative to nephrectomy in both benign and malignant lesions of the kidney.
  3 4,932 236
New therapeutic targets in the treatment of prostate cancer
Vivek Vijjan, Deepak Dubey
January-March 2007, 23(1):61-66
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30270  PMID:19675766
Androgen deprivation therapy has become the mainstay of the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, being used in every clinical setting of the disease, from neoadjuvant to metastatic disease. Despite success in controlling the disease in the majority of men, hormonal manipulations will eventually fail. New agents are being developed for patients with hormone refractory disease. Important advances in molecular oncology have improved our understanding regarding the cellular mechanisms that regulate cell death in the prostate. It is hoped that these new insights will lead to development of more efficacious and easy to tolerate therapies for cancer prostate. This review focuses on the current literature on tumor vaccines, angiogenesis inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides, differentiation agents, cancer-specific genes, endothelial receptor antagonists, anti-apoptotic agents, agents acting on signaling pathways and androgen and estrogen receptors.
  3 6,593 509
Hormone refractory prostate cancer: Current understanding and future perspectives
Makarand Khochikar
January-March 2007, 23(1):34-34
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30264  PMID:19675760
  2 4,020 295
Prediction of biochemical failure in localized carcinoma of prostate after radical prostatectomy by neuro-fuzzy
Neeraj Kumar Goyal, Abhay Kumar, Rajiba L Acharya, Udai Shankar Dwivedi, Sameer Trivedi, Pratap Bahadur Singh, TN Singh
January-March 2007, 23(1):14-17
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30258  PMID:19675754
Objective: To predict biochemical failure in localized prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy using preoperative variables. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients of early carcinoma of prostate underwent open retropubic radical prostatectomy from June 2002 to June 2006. Preoperative variables included age, family history, digital rectal examination, serum prostatic specific antigen (S. PSA), prostate biopsy Gleason score, MRI of pelvis variables like periprostatic extension, seminal vesical invasion, weight of gland and pathological stage. With application of neuro-fuzzy, these variables were fed into system as input and output, that is S. PSA at six months (predicted value) was calculated. Neuro-fuzzy system is a system to combine fuzzy system with learning techniques derived from neural networks. Here, we applied Takagi Sugeno Kang model (TSK) due to its close solution to our aim. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. At six month S. PSA of all patients was done (observed value). Predicted and observed values were compared. Result: Predicted and observed values were plotted on 1:1 slop line. Coefficient of correlation was 0.9935. Conclusion: Coefficient of correlation is close to one. It indicates that the neuro-fuzzy is accurate in predicting biochemical failure in localized carcinoma of prostate after radical prostatectomy.
  2 5,093 217
Benign fibrous histiocytoma of the bladder
Michelle De Padua, N Subramanium
January-March 2007, 23(1):72-74
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30273  PMID:19675769
Mesenchymal tumors of the bladder are rare with leiomyoma accounting for most of these. We present a rare case of a bladder benign fibrous histiocytoma in a 52-year-old male. He presented with history of straining during micturition since two years. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large intravesical mass. The mass was excised. It weighed 600g, with a maximum dimension of 13cm. Histology was that of a benign fibrous histiocytoma. To our knowledge, only two cases of this tumor have been reported in the bladder so far. The clinical and pathological features are discussed.
  1 5,394 200
Which surgery is 'best' for patients with PUJ obstruction in a poorly functioning kidney?
Rob Pickard
January-March 2007, 23(1):12-13
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30256  PMID:19675752
  1 7,281 271
Nephron sparing surgery: Is here to stay
Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
January-March 2007, 23(1):27-28
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30261  PMID:19675757
  1 3,205 159
Use of bisphosphonates in advanced prostate cancer: Current status
Wolfgang Lilleby
January-March 2007, 23(1):54-54
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30268  PMID:19675764
  1 3,232 191
EAU guidelines for management of penile cancer
Paul K Hegarty
January-March 2007, 23(1):81-81
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30277  PMID:19675773
  1 3,110 185
Vasectomy: A simple snip?
Nivedita Bhatta Dhar, J Stephen Jones
January-March 2007, 23(1):6-8
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30254  PMID:19675750
Vasectomy is one of the most common forms of permanent sterilization methods currently in use and has a failure rate of <1% in most reported series. Since failure of vasectomy may result in pregnancy, adequate counseling is essential. Couples are advised that an analysis of a semen specimen after vasectomy is required to confirm success before the use of alternative contraception is abandoned. However, measuring the success of vasectomy is complicated by a lack of consistency with regards to both the number and timing of tests and the end points accepted. Materials and Methods: A Medline search was used to identify manuscripts dealing with vasectomy, with specific attempts to identify protocols designed to confirm sterility. Results and Conclusion: Vasectomy is one of the most reliable permanent methods of contraception. However, despite its popularity, certain issues pertaining to the procedure remain unresolved. Debate continues over the relative merits of the various techniques of isolating and sealing the vasal ends. Postoperative complication rates remain minimal regardless of the technique used, and no single strategy attempting to maximize patient compliance with postoperative semen analysis has enjoyed unmitigated success. Long-term consequences, other than regret, are rare.
  1 12,422 252
Primary hyperoxaluria and systemic oxalosis
K Sriram, Nitin S Kekre, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
January-March 2007, 23(1):79-80
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30276  PMID:19675772
  1 4,090 249
Virtual versus real cystoscopy
Rajiv Yadav, Rajeev Kumar
January-March 2007, 23(1):85-86
  1 4,228 247
Does treatment rate impact the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for kidney or ureteral stones?
K Muruganandham, Aneesh Srivastava
January-March 2007, 23(1):87-88
  1 3,638 175
Bulbourethral sling in male incontinence
Alan Shindel
January-March 2007, 23(1):32-33
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30263  PMID:19675759
  - 3,396 146
Endopyelotomy vs. laparoscopic pyeloplasty
Alan Shindel
January-March 2007, 23(1):13-13
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30257  PMID:19675753
  - 3,205 165
HRPC: A need for multidisciplinary approach
Nitin S Kekre
January-March 2007, 23(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30252  PMID:19675748
  - 3,718 190
Prolene (mesh) bulbourethral sling in male incontinence
Rakesh Kapoor, Kamal Jeet Singh, Amit Suri, Pratipal Singh, Anil Mandhani
January-March 2007, 23(1):29-32
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30262  PMID:19675758
Objective : We present our preliminary results of bulbar urethral sling (single bolster) in treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI). Materials and Methods: From May 2003 to June 2005, six patients with postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (transurethral resection of prostate in five patients and after open prostatectomy in one patient) underwent prolene mesh bulbar urethral sling surgery. Preoperative evaluation included physical examination, neurological assessment, stress cystogram and urethrocystoscopy. Urodynamic evaluation was done in all patients for abdominal leak point pressure and ruling out bladder pathology. Results : Urodynamic studies did not demonstrate bladder instability in any patient. Mean abdominal leak point pressure was 43cm of water (range 26-80 cm of water). Mean duration of hospital stay was 3.2 days. Follow-up ranged from 6-22 months. Four patients out of six patients were completely dry till their last follow-up. One patient developed mild stress incontinence after one year of the surgery and required use of one to two pads per day. Mean pad use after surgery was 0.6 pads per day in comparison to mean pad usage of 6.4 pads per day preoperatively. One patient was over-continent after the procedure and required clean intermittent catheterization till last follow-up (six months). Mean cost of the procedure was $ 350+15. Conclusion: Prolene bulbar urethral sling (single bolster) is an economically effective option in patients with postprostatectomy urinary incontinence.
  - 7,394 219
Update in palliative management of hormone refractory cancer of prostate
Pratipal Singh, Aneesh Srivastava
January-March 2007, 23(1):43-50
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30266  PMID:19675762
Hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) is an incurable disease and as in the pressure sensitive adhesive era the median survival of patients is increasing, these men increasingly develop symptomatic problems as a result of advanced local and or metastatic disease during their progression to death. Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to improve survival in this group of patients with use of chemotherapy which reinforces the need of better options in palliative care. We discus the various clinical problems (Part I) and treatment options of palliative care (Part II) and try to formulate an action plan in this review.
  - 9,818 460
Use of bisphosphonates in prostate cancer: Current status
Rishi Nayyar, Narmada P Gupta
January-March 2007, 23(1):51-54
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30267  PMID:19675763
Bisphosphonates are a relatively newer class of drugs which have been used for the prevention of skeletal related complications of age related osteoporosis or metastatic disease from carcinoma breast or multiple myeloma. Their role in the management of prostate cancer is still under evolution. We hereby review the ongoing and some published randomized trials to define the role of bisphosphonates in various stages of prostate cancer.
  - 6,464 456
Chemotherapy for hormone-resistant prostate cancer: Where are we today?
Tomas Buchler, Stephen J Harland
January-March 2007, 23(1):55-60
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30269  PMID:19675765
Significant progress has been achieved in chemotherapy for hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC) in the last five years. Although the disease was long considered to be chemoresistant, docetaxel-based regimens in particular have been shown to both palliate symptoms and prolong survival in HRPC patients. Docetaxel is now considered the best available chemotherapy for prostate cancer progressing on first-line hormonal treatment. Other cytotoxics including mitoxantrone, anthracyclines, vinorelbin and vinblastine can alleviate symptoms and improve progression-free survival in HRPC without affecting overall survival. The survival benefit from chemotherapy seen in randomized studies has been small or nonexistent. Results of a recent trial suggest that the survival benefit may have been underestimated as a result of crossover from the less active to the active arm.
  - 8,136 348
Treatment algorithm in hormone-resistant prostate cancer: Practical guidelines
Makarand V Khochikar
January-March 2007, 23(1):67-69
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.30271  PMID:19675767
Treatment of hormone-resistant prostate cancer can be a challenging situation. The first important step in treating this condition is to assess if one has achieved the castrate level or not. If the castrate levels are not achieved, attempt should be made to achieve so. If the castrate level is achieved, then androgen withdrawals may be of help. Supportive care, care of the clinical problems forms an integral part of the treatment. Cancer-specific chemotherapy is certainly an option in progressive disease.
  - 7,037 548
Is incidence of prostate cancer higher in patients with end stage renal disease?
Makarand V Khochikar
January-March 2007, 23(1):82-82
  - 2,959 126
Neoadjuvant androgen suppression in patients treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy
Makarand V Khochikar
January-March 2007, 23(1):83-83
  - 2,241 110
Prostate cancer treatment does not increase the risk of cardiovascular events
Makarand V Khochikar
January-March 2007, 23(1):83-84
  - 1,863 121
Increasing use of nephron sparing surgery for T1a renal tumors
Rajeev Kumar
January-March 2007, 23(1):84-85
  - 2,964 122
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