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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2021
Volume 37 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 109-205

Online since Thursday, April 1, 2021

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EDITORIALS  

Lighting the candle at both ends: Burnout in urologists Highly accessed article p. 109
Arabind Panda
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_103_21  
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Round Up p. 111
Santosh Kumar
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_98_21  
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OPINION Top

Twenty-five years of the low-cost, noninflatable, Shah Indian penile prosthesis: The history of its evolution p. 113
Rupin Shah
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_60_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Renal cortical transit time in the evaluation of prenatally detected presumed pelvi ureteric junction like obstruction: A systematic review p. 116
Gyanendra Ravindra Sharma, Arabind Panda, Anshu Gyanendra Sharma
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_236_20  
Introduction: Differentiating nonobstructive from obstructive dilatation of the kidney is a clinical dilemma in prenatally detected hydronephrosis. Many radionuclide renogram parameters have been used to differentiate obstructed from non-obstructed units, including cortical transit time (CTT). We evaluate the role of CTT in identifying obstruction through a systematic review. Methods: A literature search of the MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, and MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, EMBASE, Google scholar, Pub Med, and Cochrane Library was done using key words – radionuclide renogram, CTT, parenchymal transit time, cortical transit, renography to identify articles on the subject. The identified articles were assessed for appropriateness and reviewed. Results: The initial search yielded a total of 1583 articles, after adding the articles from references and applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria a total of 28 articles were selected. CTT showed good inter observer agreement in identifying obstruction. The use of CTT as a single parameter for determining the need for surgery and to identify those kidneys which will have functional improvement after surgery has been evaluated and has been found to be useful. CTT is best used in conjunction with ultrasonography to make clinical decisions. Conclusion: The commonly used visual method of estimating the CTT, is a promising parameter for the evaluation of prenatally detected pelviureteric junction obstruction. Further well-designed multicenter prospective studies are needed to establish it as the most specific parameter to differentiate obstructive from nonobstructive dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system.
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Role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma p. 125
Rahul Jena, Tushar Aditya Narain, Uday Pratap Singh, Aneesh Srivastava
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_268_20  
Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET) is not a standard recommendation in most of the major guidelines for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Earlier studies evaluating PET scan in patients with RCC have provided discordant results. However, with the advent of newer hybrid PET/computed tomography (CT) scanning systems, this modality has shown increased efficacy in the evaluation of primary renal masses along with the detection of extrarenal metastases, restaging recurrent RCC, and also in monitoring response to targeted therapy. We performed a systematic review of the existing literature on the role of PET scan in the evaluation of RCC. Methodology: We systematically searched the databases of PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar to identify studies on the use of PET scan in RCC. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines, 94 full-text articles were selected, of which 54 relevant articles were then reviewed, after a consensus by the authors. Results: Several studies have shown similar sensitivity and specificity of fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose-PET (FDG-PET) scan as compared to conventional CT scan for the initial diagnosis of RCC, and an improved sensitivity and specificity for the detection of metastases and recurrences following curative therapy. The PET scan may also play a role in predicting the initial tumor biology and pathology and predicting the prognosis as well as the response to therapy. Conclusion: The current guidelines do not recommend PET scan in the staging armamentarium of RCCs. However, FDG-PET scan is as efficacious, if not better than conventional imaging alone, in the evaluation of the primary and metastatic RCC, as well as in evaluating the response to therapy, due to its ability to pick up areas of increased metabolic activity early on. Newer tracers such as Ga68 prostate specific membrane antigen-labeled ligands may help in opening up newer avenues of theragnostics.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Efficacy of 1 versus 3 days of intravenous amikacin as a prophylaxis for patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate: A prospective randomized trial p. 133
Selvin Theodore Jayanth, J Chandrasingh, Rani Diana Sahni, Rajiv Paul Mukha, Santosh Kumar, Antony Devasia, Nitin Sudhakar Kekre
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_494_20  
Introduction: There are no uniform guidelines on the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 1 day versus 3 days of intravenous amikacin as prophylaxis, before TURP. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized control trial, patients with sterile preoperative urine culture were randomized to receive either 1 day (Group A) or 3 days (Group B) of intravenous (IV) amikacin. All patients had their catheter removed on the 3rd day and a midstream urine culture was obtained on the 4th day. The follow-up was scheduled at 1 week and at 1 month. The rate of bacteriuria on the 4th postoperative day was analyzed as the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes included symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), its risk factors, and other complications at 1 month. Results: Of the 338 patients randomized, 314 patients were evaluable until day 7 and 307 until 1 month. Bacteriuria rate at day 4 (Group A: 8.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.2–13.2]; Group B: 4.4% [95% CI: 1.2%–7.7%], P = 0.124, Fisher's exact test) was similar in both the groups. At 1 month, the rate of symptomatic UTI was also similar in both the groups (3.5% [95% CI: 0.8–6.9] vs. 1.7% [95% CI: 0.2–4.2], P = 0.344, Fisher's exact test). Bacteriuria (colony-forming unit, >104/ml) at day 4 was a significant risk factor for developing symptomatic UTI (P = 0.006). Antibiotic resistance was higher in Group B (P = 0.002) (Group A: 7.1% [95% CI: 6.3–20] vs. Group B: [71%, CI: 38–104], P = 0.0021, Fisher's exact test). Conclusion: One day is possibly noninferior to 3 days of IV amikacin as prophylaxis in patients undergoing TURP with respect to bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI, with an added advantage of lower antibiotic resistance.
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The impact of transition from conventional robot-assisted radical prostatectomy to retzius sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: A retrospective multivariate analysis p. 140
TA Kishore, Milka James Kuriakose, Vishnu Raveendran, MK Ramaprasad
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_414_20  
Introduction: To assess the outcomes of Retzius sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RS-RARP) in comparison with the conventional RARP. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 320 cases of RARP, performed from 2014 April to 2019 April, was performed. The predictor variables included age, body mass index, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score category in biopsy, D'Amico risk category, presence of the median lobe, prior transurethral resection of the prostate, and the ability to perform the RS-RARP. The outcome variables included console time, blood loss, blood transfusion, nerve sparing, bladder neck sparing, positive surgical margins (PSM), number and the site of PSMs, extracapsular invasion, seminal vesicle involvement, complications, continence, erectile function, biochemical recurrence, and adjuvant treatment. Regression analysis was performed using the linear regression for the continuous variables and binary logistic regression for the categorical variables with two levels. Results: Three hundred and twenty patients underwent radical prostatectomy from 2014 April to 2019 April. We started the RS-RARP program in December 2016. Twenty-three patients who did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded and a total of 297 patients were studied. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that RS-RARP was a strong positive independent predictor for continence recovery at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. RS-RARP was an independent predictor of reduced console time and increased probability of bladder neck sparing. RS-RARP was also independently associated with increased PSM in the posterolateral, anterolateral, and the apical regions. Conclusion: RS-RARP has better continence rates up to 12 months compared with the conventional approach, but is associated with increased PSM at certain locations.
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Application and comparison of Fuhrman nuclear grading system with the novel tumor grading system for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and its correlation with disease-specific events p. 147
Akash Pramod Sali, Ganesh K Bahirwade, Ganesh Bakshi, Gagan Prakash, Amit Joshi, Sangeeta B Desai, Santosh Menon
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_633_20  
Introduction: The grading system of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is not well established. In this study, we aimed to compare the application of Fuhrman nuclear grade (FNG) with the novel chromophobe tumor grade (CTG). We also evaluated the correlation of these two grading systems with the clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: Consecutive cases of ChRCC diagnosed on nephrectomy during 2005–2014 were identified. The clinical details of the patients were retrieved. Histopathology slides were reviewed and the nuclear grading was assigned using standard FNG and the CTG system. The CTG and FNG gradings were correlated with clinical outcome. Results: A total of 80 cases were retrieved. Distribution of FNG was as follows: FNG-1, 1 (1.3%); FNG-2, 23 (28.3%); FNG-3, 44 (55.0%); and FNG-4, 12 (15%). CTG distribution was as follows: CTG-1, 48 (60.0%); CTG-2, 20 (25.0%); and CTG-3 12 (15.0%). Follow-up data was available in 46 cases; the median follow-up was 23.9 months (range 1–96.4 months). The median time to recurrence/metastasis was 17.2 months (range 3.2–31.2 months). Mean disease-free survival (DFS) was 68.5 months. Both CTG (P < 0.001) and FNG (P = 0.001) correlated with DFS; however, only CTG retained this significance when only the nonsarcomatous cases were analyzed. On receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, CTG had higher predictive accuracy for DFS for the entire group, while FNG lost the statistical significance when the nonsarcomatous cases were analyzed. CTG (P = 0.001) but not FNG (P = 0.106) correlated with the disease-specific adverse events in non-sarcomatous cases. Conclusions: It is possible to apply CTG in ChRCC. It is a better predictor of DFS and disease-specific adverse events. CTG is more appropriate and applicable than the FNG in grading ChRCC.
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Drain fluid creatinine-to-serum creatinine ratio as an initial test to detect urine leakage following cystectomy: A retrospective study p. 153
Subodh Kumar Regmi, Elizabeth N Bearrick, Peter T. F Hannah, Niranjan Sathianathen, Arveen Kalapara, Badrinath R Konety
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_396_20  
Introduction: Urine leak following radical cystectomy is a known complication. Among the various methods to diagnose this, assessment of drain fluid creatinine is a relatively easy procedure. We aimed to ascertain the validity of the drain fluid creatinine-to-serum creatinine ratio (DCSCR) as an initial indicator of urinary leak in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Methods: We retrospectively identified consecutive patients with documentation of drain fluid creatinine in the postoperative period following cystectomy and urinary diversion at our institution between January 2009 and December 2018. All continent diversions and any patient with a DCSCR >1.5:1 underwent contrast study postoperatively. A diagnosis of urine leak was made following confirmatory imaging. Receiver operative characteristic curves were created, and Youden's index was used to determine the strength and clinical utility of DCSCR as a diagnostic test. Results: Two hundred forty-four of the 340 patients included in the study underwent cystectomy with conduit and 81 underwent neobladder creation. Sixteen out of 340 (4.7%) patients had radiologically confirmed urinary leak. DCSCR was elevated in all ureteric anastomotic leaks and in 1 out of the 7 neobladder-urethral anastomotic (NUA) leaks. The sensitivity and specificity of DCSCR to predict all urinary leaks were 68.8% and 80.9% at 1.12 (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.838), whereas at a value of 1.18 (AUC = 0.876) and with the exclusion of NUA leaks, the sensitivity was 77.8% and specificity was 87.6%. Conclusions: DCSCR is a good preliminary test for identifying patients who need prompt confirmatory testing for localizing urinary leaks. A drain creatinine level just 18% higher than the serum creatinine level can signify a urine leak. This is different from general assumptions of a higher DCSCR.
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Prostate-specific antigen screening of men with lower urinary tract symptoms (opportunistic screening) and of asymptomatic men undergoing executive health check: an audit from two institutions p. 159
Anil Mandhani, Varun Mittal, Ved Bhaskar, Aneesh Srivastava
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_478_20  
Introduction: We evaluated incidence ofprostate-specific antigen (PSA) positivity (>4ng/mL) and cancer detection rate on prostate biopsy in two populations of men, one undergoing opportunistic testing for lower urinary tract symptoms and another during routine health checks. Methods: Data regarding PSA screening, rectal examination (RE), transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy, clinical stage, and risk assessment grouping according to NCCN guidelines were studied. Group A included patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (opportunistic screening) at SGPGIMS, Lucknow and Group B included healthy men who had executive health check-up with PSA testing at Medanta the Medicity, Gurugram. Results: PSA positivity rate in 9906 symptomatic men for LUTS (Group A) and 24919 healthy men (Group B) was 28.4% and 3% respectively. In group A, PSA positivity rate was 28.4% but only around half of all men with an indication underwent a biopsy. Among men with PSA of 4–10 ng/mL, cancer was detected in 93 of 241 who underwent a biopsy (38.5%). In Group B, only 69 men (9.3% of those with an elevated PSA) underwent a prostate biopsy, of which 38/57 (with PSA of 4–10 had cancer. In Group A, the cancers was metastatic in 61.5% men, while none in-Group B had metastatic disease. Conclusion: Opportunistic screening and executive health check with PSA identifies a significant number of men with PSA positivity and may help decrease the proportion of men diagnosed in metastatic prostate cancer.
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Management and outcomes of ureteroceles in children: An experience of 25 years p. 163
Vishesh Jain, Sandeep Agarwala, Anjan Dhua, Aparajita Mitra, Deepak Mittal, Divya Murali, Devasenathipathy Kandasamy, Rakesh Kumar, Veereshwar Bhatnagar
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_522_20  
Introduction: Ureterocele is a rare urogenital malformation. The treatment is variable and complicated as it depends on several factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the management and outcomes of children with ureterocele and to compare single system and duplex system ureteroceles. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted and all patients with ureterocele operated from January 1992 to December 2018 were included. The records of those included were assessed, and a detailed case record sheet was filled. The outcome parameters assessed were the persistence of symptoms and additional surgical procedure performed. Results: Forty-seven patients (28 boys and 19 girls) with a median age of presentation of 21 months were included. Four patients had bilateral ureterocele. Overall, 51 renal units with ureterocele were studied. Twenty renal units of the 31 renal units with duplex system underwent cystoscopic decompression, and of these, 8 (40%) needed a second procedure. Fourteen renal units of the remaining 20 renal units with single system underwent cystoscopy and decompression, and of these, 1 (7%) required another procedure (P = 0.024). Sixteen renal units had ectopic ureterocele, of which 9 (56%) underwent heminephrectomy/nephrectomy. Intravesical ureterocele was present in 35 renal units, of which only 2 (5.7%) underwent nephrectomy or heminephrectomy (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Duplex system ureteroceles are more likely to require a second procedure following an endoscopic puncture. Units with ectopic ureterocele were more likely to need nephrectomy.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Upper tract transitional cell carcinoma clinically mimicking inflammatory renal pathology: A report of three cases p. 169
Rahul Jena, Sanjoy Kumar Sureka, Uday Pratap Singh
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_173_20  
Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) of the renal pelvis and the ureter is incidentally detected in a small proportion of cases. However, the majority of UTUC cases present with hematuria, flank pain, and clot colic. Typical imaging features include hydronephrosis of the kidney (s) due to obstruction by the mass with a soft-tissue lesion that typically shows low-grade enhancement with or without a filling defect. Rarely, such a tumor may present with signs and symptoms mimicking an inflammatory or infective pathology of the kidney and is diagnosed only on biopsy or on nephrectomy. We present three such patients and cite another similar case we have published earlier. All three of these patients presented with signs and symptoms of an obstructed infected kidney with long-standing renal calculi and a forgotten DJ stent in one instance. Nephrectomy for the presumed infected kidney in all three cases revealed high-grade UTUC. In patients presenting with equivocal findings on cross-sectional imaging with a history of renal calculi or foreign bodies, we should have a high index of suspicion for malignancy.
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Primary extrarenal papillary renal cell carcinoma presenting as a neck mass p. 173
S Srivishnu, Ganesh Bakshi, Santosh Menon
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_229_20  
Extrarenal primary renal cell carcinoma is an extremely rare entity with limited literature. Characteristic findings of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at the metastatic site in the absence of a discrete radiological renal lesion can perplex both the clinician and pathologist. We report a case of metastatic primary extrarenal papillary RCC, who presented as a neck mass clinically and radiologically a paraaortic mass with normal bilateral native kidneys. The final diagnosis was aided by histopathological features, further confirmed by targeted immunohistochemical markers.
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Glucagon-producing mucinous tubular and spindle cell variant of renal cell carcinoma with paraneoplastic diabetes: Case report and review of literature p. 176
Ashish Khanna, Sharwan Kumar Singh, Ritambara Nada
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_265_20  
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known as the internist tumor because of the myriad paraneoplastic manifestations associated with it. One of the rarely described paraneoplastic manifestations associated with this malignancy is hyperglycemia. Only 11 cases in the English and Japanese literature have been reported. We report the occurrence of paraneoplastic hyperglycemia with a rare variant: mucinous tubular and spindle cell variant of RCC. To the best of our knowledge, the association of paraneoplastic hyperglycemia with this variant has not been reported earlier.
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Managing intractable incontinence from a Yang-Monti channel in a case of enterocystoplasty with bladder neck closure – Challenges and a modified surgical technique p. 180
Murali Krishna Padyala, Sidhartha Kalra, Lalgudi Narayanan Dorairajan
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_375_20  
Incontinence in the Mitrofanoff principle varies between 2% and 40% and is a challenging problem to treat. Incontinence is even more when a Yang-Monti channel is used with simultaneous enterocystoplasty, probably due to ineffective submucosal tunneling owing to the inferior quality of bowel mucosa. Here, we report the management options of such problems along with a novel surgical technique.
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Phenotype variation among siblings with 5-alpha reductase deficiency: A case series p. 183
D Sandeep Reddy, Vijay Sheker Reddy Danda, Srinivas Rao Paidipally
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_340_20  
Steroid 5α-reductase deficiency (5ARD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the 5α-reductase type 2 gene (SRD5A2). 5ARD results in the impaired conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and is characterized by undervirilization in 46XY individuals. We report a case series of three siblings presenting with ambiguous genitalia and different phenotypes. They did not meet the widely accepted biochemical criteria for 5ARD. In view of strong clinical suspicion, genetic analysis was performed which revealed pathogenic mutation in SRD5A2. This report highlights the importance of definitive diagnosis with molecular methods as the treatment and prognosis differs greatly among the close differential diagnoses. Reliance on the biochemical criteria alone may lead to misdiagnosis.
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VIDEOS Top

The use of endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery as an additional approach to upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: Our Experience p. 187
Marco Serafino Grande, Davide Campobasso, Raffaele Inzillo, Matteo Moretti, Francesco Facchini, Jean Emmanuel Kwe, Antonio Frattini
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_71_20  
Introduction: With increasing experience and advancing technology, endoscopy for UTUC has become more common. Endoscopic Combined Intrarenal Surgery (ECIRS) could be an option for patients with low-grade and large-volume UTUC that could be either anatomically or technically challenging to manage by retrograde flexible ureterorenoscopy. Materials and Methods: In this video, we describe, step by step, our ECIRS technique as applied to two selected clinical cases of UTUC. Conclusion: ECIRS could represent a useful approach to UTUC in selected cases. The advantage of the “endovision” puncture and dilation technique is in the avoidance of entering the renal calyx at the level of the tumor. In addition, the combined approach, compared to the purely percutaneous approach, allows access to, and treatment of, neoplasms located in all renal calyces.
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Laparoscopic appendicular interposition ureteroplasty for mid-ureteral defect p. 189
Datson Palathullil George, Vigneswara Srinivasan Sockkalingam Venkatachalapathy, George Palathullil Abraham
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_117_20  
Patients with ureteral defects and salvageable renal units present a challenge in reconstructive urology. Vermiform appendix interposition is an option in the management of mid-ureteral defects that can not be managed by primary ureteroureterostomy. Laparoscopic appendicular interposition ureteroplasty is a technically demanding and an infrequently attempted procedure. We present a video demonstration of laparoscopic appendicular interposition for a 4-cm long right mid-ureteral defect in an elderly male. Laparoscopic appendicular interposition ureteroplasty for mid-ureteral defects can provide good long-term functional outcomes with results comparable to an open approach and has the advantage of reduced morbidity.
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UROLOGICAL IMAGE Top

Aberrant renal hilar pelvic anatomy in a malrotated kidney p. 191
Adarsh Vijay, Matthew Cooper, Seyed Ghasemian
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_608_20  
Understanding variations in uretero–pelvic anatomy is of paramount importance from a surgical, radiological and academic perspective. We report an unheard renal hilar pelvic anatomy where the renal pelvis presented as the most anterior hilar structure. We believe an embryologic event in the renal ascent and rotation can account for this unusual presentation.
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UROSCANS Top

HERO trial: A rescue from injectable androgen deprivation therapy p. 193
Satish Kumar Ranjan
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_497_20  
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Can early salvage radiotherapy replace adjuvant radiotherapy as the new standard of care for high-risk postradical prostatectomy patients? p. 195
Abhishek Pandey
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_559_20  
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Approach to chemotherapy for high-risk, stage 1, non-seminomatous, germ cell testicular tumors p. 197
Madhur Anand
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_555_20  
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BOOK REVIEW Top

The grading and staging of clinical BPH for optimal care p. 199
Nitin Kekre
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_88_21  
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Re: Chandramohan V, Siddalingaswamy PM, Ramakrishna P, Soundarya G, Manas B, Hemnath A. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for renal stones in children <5 years of age. Indian J Urol 2021;37:48-53 p. 201
Sambit Tripathy, Swarnendu Mandal, Manoj K Das, Prasant Nayak
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_6_21  
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Author reply Re: Chandramohan V, Siddalingaswamy PM, Ramakrishna P, Soundarya G, Manas B, Hemnath A. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for renal stones in children <5 years of age. Indian J Urol 2021;37:48-53 p. 202
Vaddi Chandramohan, PM Siddalingaswamy, Ramakrishna Paidakula, Soundarya Ganesan, Babu Manas, Hemnath Anandan
DOI:10.4103/iju.IJU_53_21  
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: Retrograde intrarenal surgery for renal stones in children <5 years of age p. 204

DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.312939  
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