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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 268-275

Urgency and urgency incontinence following stress urinary incontinence surgery: A review of evaluation and management

1 Department of Urology, LSU Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA
2 Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Tennessee, USA

Correspondence Address:
Roger R Dmochowski
Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Tennessee
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/iju.iju_147_22

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The presence of urgency urinary incontinence (U/UUI) after sling surgery is a common reason for dissatisfaction and imposition on quality of life. We aimed to evaluate and analyze the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of U/UUI after sling surgery. A MEDLINE review was performed for relevant, English-language articles relating to storage and emptying symptoms after sling surgery. U/UUI may persist, be improved, or worsen in women with preoperative mixed urinary incontinence and may appear de novo in those women originally presenting with pure stress urinary incontinence (SUI). While the exact mechanism is not clear, partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) should always be suspected, especially in those women with worsened or de novo symptoms soon after sling surgery. Initial workup should elucidate the temporality, quality, and bother associated with symptoms and to evaluate the woman for urinary tract infection (UTI), pelvic organ prolapse (POP), or perforation of the lower urinary tract. The utility of urodynamics in attaining a definitive diagnosis of BOO is inconclusive. Treatment options include reevaluation of the patient after sling incision or after addressing UTI, POP, and perforation of the bladder or urethra. Women also typically undergo a multitiered approach to storage lower urinary tract symptoms outlined in the American Urological Association/Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction Overactive Bladder Guidelines. While improvement is typically seen with multimodality treatment, all women should be counseled regarding need for additional treatment for U/UUI, BOO, and SUI in the future.

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