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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 197-203

Development and internal validation of preoperative and postoperative nomograms predicting quadrifecta outcomes following robotic radical prostatectomy


Department of Uro-Oncology, Max Institute of Cancer Care, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Gagan Gautam
Department of Uro-Oncology, Max Institute of Cancer Care, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/iju.iju_381_21

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Introduction: Literature on the factors predicting functional and oncological outcomes following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is sparse for the Indian population. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to develop preoperative and postoperative nomograms predicting these outcomes in patients with prostate cancer undergoing RARP. Methods: This retrospective analysis identified the predictors of quadrifecta outcomes, i.e., the patients who did not have complications, were continent, had negative surgical margins, and were biochemical recurrence free with at least 1 year of follow-up following RARP. We excluded the return of sexual potency as the majority of the patients in our series were sexually inactive preoperatively. We used the backward stepwise logistic regression analysis method to identify the predictors of quadrifecta. Preoperative and postoperative nomograms using these predictors were developed and validated with bootstrapping, goodness of fit, calibration plot, decision curve analysis (DCA), and theits receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Of the 688 patients who underwent RARP, 399 were included in this study, and 123 (30.8%) of these achieved the quadrifecta outcomes. Preoperative nomogram was developed using four variables, i.e., prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), biopsy Gleason score, and clinical stage. Postoperative nomogram included PSA, CCI, pathological tumor stage, tumor grade, and positive lymph node. Both the models were internally valid on bootstrapping, calibration plots, and goodness of fit. On the ROC analysis, preoperative and postoperative nomograms had an area under the curve of 0.71 and 0.79, respectively. On the DCA, at a threshold probability of 5%, both the models showed a net benefit. Conclusions: We developed and validated accurate nomograms for predicting quadrifecta outcomes following RARP for the Indian population.


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