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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 135-139

Long-term impact of testicular torsion and its salvage on semen parameters and gonadal function

1 Department of Urology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Anaesthesia, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Kalpesh Parmar
Department of Urology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/iju.iju_328_21

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Introduction: Testicular torsion is a urological emergency, and long-term outcomes of testicular torsion on infertility, hormonal function, and salvaged testicular size are unclear. Materials and Methods: We conducted an ambispective, observational study from January 2014 to December 2019. Baseline demographics, time of presentation, clinical features, and management details of all the patients of testicular torsion were recorded from the database. All the patients were followed up in the outpatient clinic for testicular size, hormone levels, semen analysis, and erectile function. Results: Of 85 patients, only 67 could be contacted and included in the final analysis. Group 1(orchiectomy) comprised 44 patients, and Group 2(salvage) had 23 patients. Follow-up duration ranged from 2 to 6 years and mean follow-up was 42 ± 12 months. The median time to presentation was significantly higher in Group 1 (48 hours) as compared to Group 2 (12 hours). The rate of testicular salvage did not vary with age of the patients. Doppler ultrasonography of the scrotum detected 92.5% of all cases of torsion. Antisperm antibody levels were within normal range in all patients. Approximately 47% of patients in the salvage group developed testicular atrophy on follow-up. Serum testosterone level was significantly lower in Group 1 and the subset of patients with testicular atrophy. Rest of the hormonal parameters, semen analysis, and erectile function were comparable between two groups. Conclusion: The time between onset and presentation is an important contributing factor in guiding testicular salvage. Even after salvage, many testes may atrophy on follow-up. Orchiectomy and testicular atrophy in the long term have negative impact on serum testosterone. The patients should be counseled for a long-term follow-up for the risk of testicular atrophy and low testosterone levels.

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