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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-28

Raised prostate-specific antigen alone may not be a true predictor in high-risk prostate cancer: A retrospective cohort analysis

Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Rajeev Kumar
Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/iju.iju_368_21

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Introduction: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >20 ng/mL in isolation is a criterion for classification as “high-risk” prostate cancer (PCa). However, among Indian men, PSA elevation is often seen even in the absence of PCa and patients with PSA as the sole criterion for the high-risk disease may have different outcomes from those categorized as high risk due to adverse pathological features. We compared the operative, oncological, and functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in men with high-risk PCa categorized using PSA alone versus clinical and histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: In an Institute Review Board-approved study, men undergoing RARP with high-risk PCa with at least 2-year follow-up were categorized into those with PSA >20 ng/ml being the sole criteria for being high risk (Group A) versus those with Gleason score ≥8 or ≥T2c disease but any PSA level (Group B). The two groups were compared for perioperative, oncological, and functional outcomes. Results: Fifty-three patients with high-risk disease were included. Twenty-six patients (48.9%) were classified into Group A while 27 patients (50.9%) were classified into Group B. The median PSA was significantly higher in Group A (31 [26–35] ng/ml in Group A vs. 21 [12–34] ng/ml in Group B, P = 0.006) and on histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimen, 24 (92.3%) patients had GG ≤3 disease in Group A versus 10 (37%) patients in Group B (P < 0.001). Patients in both the groups had similar perioperative and continence outcomes. However, Group A had significantly lower biochemical recurrence rate (3/26 [11.5%]) as compared to Group B (11/27 [40.7%]) (P = 0.012). Conclusions: PSA >20 ng/ml is the single most common criterion for stratification as high-risk PCa. However, men with PSA >20 ng/ml in isolation, without another adverse criterion, have better outcomes than men with adverse clinical or pathological criteria for high-risk disease.

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