Indian Journal of Urology Users online:836  
Home Current Issue Ahead of print Editorial Board Archives Symposia Guidelines Subscriptions Login 
Print this page  Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size

Year : 2009  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 559-560

Naftopidil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stone

1 Department of Urology, King George Medical University, Lucknow - 226 003, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Surgery, King George Medical University, Lucknow - 226 003, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication30-Nov-2009

Correspondence Address:
Apul Goel
Department of Urology, King George Medical University, Lucknow - 226 003, Uttar Pradesh
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions


How to cite this article:
Jain A, Pahwa H S, Goel A. Naftopidil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stone. Indian J Urol 2009;25:559-60

How to cite this URL:
Jain A, Pahwa H S, Goel A. Naftopidil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stone. Indian J Urol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2021 Dec 3];25:559-60. Available from:

Xizhao S, Lei H, Weihong G and Jianlin L, J Urol 2009;181:1716-20. Efficacy of selective a1d-blocker Naftopidil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones

   Summary Top

Authors conducted a randomized controlled study from March 2006 to January 2007 to determine the role of naftopidil as medical expulsive therapy (MET) for distal ureteral stone. Sixty patients with unilateral distal ureteral stones were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and X-ray KUB primarily and CT scan or intravenous urogram if required. Patients with multiple stone, severe impacted stone, previous distal ureteral surgery, renal colic >24 h, urinary tract infection, pregnancy and systemic medical diseases were excluded from the study. Patients were then randomized into two groups. Group 1 served as control and underwent watchful waiting while group 2 received 50 mg naftopidil daily in the morning. There was no difference between the groups in patient age (mean age in group-1 37.8±10.2, group-2, 38.2±12.6 yrs; p=NS), sex (group-1, 26 male:4 female; group-2, 24 male:6 female, p=NS) and stone size (overall mean size=5.5 ± 1.2 mm). Results were studied in the form of stone expulsion rate, potential side effects of naftopidil, number of pain episode and requirement of analgesics during 14-days study period. Results shows that stone expulsion rate were significantly higher in naftopidil group (90% vs. 26.7%, p<0.01) while stone expulsion time was not statistically significant between both groups (median 6 days). Patients in both the groups did not experience any ureteral colic or significant side-effects. On multivariate analysis, the probability of expulsion was 5.263 times higher in naftopidil group patients (p<0.001).

The authors concluded that naftopidil can significantly facilitate the spontaneous passage of distal ureteral stones with few side effects.

   Comments Top

Distal ureteric stones (stone located below SI joint) comprise 70% of all ureteral stones. [1] There is a roughly linear relationship between stone size and likelihood of spontaneous passage and about 87, 72, 47, and 27% of stones measuring 1, 4, 7 and 10 mm on CT scan pass spontaneously. [2] Distal ureteral stones are managed either by URS or SWL and the reported success rates are approximately 97 and 74% respectively. [3] Alpha-1 blockers and calcium channel blockers are also used as MET for distal ureteral stones.

The rationale behind the use of alpha blockers is that stimulation of α1 receptors in the ureter causes increased ureteral peristalsis, smooth muscle tone and contractile force resulting in ureteral spasm and decreased ureteral urine flow. Thus blockade of α1 receptors causes inhibition of basal tone, reduces peristaltic amplitude and frequency, decreases intra-luminal pressure while increasing the rate of fluid transport. Alpha-1 blockers induce an increase in the intra-ureteral pressure gradient around the stone that helps in stone expulsion. [4]

As MET for distal ureteral stone, tamsulosin and nifedipine have been studied in doses of 0.4 mg and 30 mg daily respectively, for 14 to 28 days in various studies. Porpiglia et al. reported that expulsion rate was 43%, 80%, and 85% in control, nifedipine and tamsulosin group respectively, while the average expulsion time was 12 days in control group, 9.3 days in nifedipine group and 7.7 days in tamsulosin groups. [5] The reported side effect of nifedipine was hypotension and palpitations in 2.5-4.3% while 3.3-4.2% patients receiving tamsulosin had transient hypotension.

Alpha-1 receptors are present in the ureter and are maximally concentrated in the distal ureter. Three subtypes of α1 receptor have been described, namely, α1a, α1b , and α1d. Among these, α1d receptors have the highest density in distal ureter. Alpha 1d receptors are also present on detrusor muscle and spinal cord. In detrusor muscles α1d receptors are nearly two times than α1a receptor while α1b receptors are absent. Naftopidil, a specific α1d receptor antagonist, have 3 and 17 fold higher potency for α1d than α1a and α1b. Naftopidil is used in the treatment of BPH and nocturia in some countries like Japan due to its relieving effects on detrusor and spinal cord reflexes and the selective antagonistic activity of α1d adrenoreceptor. [6] However, the use of naftopidil in MET is first described in this study. Naftopidil have little side effects such as dizziness and asthenia in about 6.7% patients.

Further clinical trials are needed to compare the efficacy of naftopidil with tamsulosin as expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones.

   References Top

1.Carstensen HE, Hansen TS. Stones in the ureter. Acta Chir Scand 1973;433:66-71.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Coll DM, Varanelli MJ, Smith RC. Relationship of spontaneous passage of ureteral calculi to stone size and location as revealed by unenhanced helical CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002;178:101-3  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
3.Wolf JS Jr. Treatment selection and outcomes: ureteral calculi. Urol Clin North Am 2007;34:421-30.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
4.Dellabella M, Milanese G, Muzzonigro G. Efficacy of tamsulosin in the medical management of juxtavesical ureteral stones. J Urol 2003;170:2202-5.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
5.Porpiglia F, Ghignone G, Fiori C, Fontana D, Scarpa RM. Nifedipine versus tamsulosin for the management of lower ureteral stones. J Urol 2004;172:568-71.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
6.Nishino Y, Masue T, Miwa K, Takahashi Y, Ishihara S, Deguchi T. Comparison of two alpha1- adrenoceptor antagonists, naftopidil and tamsulosin hydrochloride, in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized crossover study. BJU Int 2006;97:747-51.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  


Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article


   Next article
   Previous article 
   Table of Contents
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (79 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded231    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal