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Year : 2002  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 163-164

Case report : Duplication of the IVC with ectopic kidney and PUJ obstruction

Department of Urology and Radiodiagnosis, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India

Correspondence Address:
K Ninan Chacko
Department of Urology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore (T.N.) - 632 004
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Keywords: IVC Duplication; Ectopic Kidney.

How to cite this article:
Bobby VS, Raghuram L, Chacko K N. Case report : Duplication of the IVC with ectopic kidney and PUJ obstruction. Indian J Urol 2002;18:163-4

How to cite this URL:
Bobby VS, Raghuram L, Chacko K N. Case report : Duplication of the IVC with ectopic kidney and PUJ obstruction. Indian J Urol [serial online] 2002 [cited 2023 Mar 25];18:163-4. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Anomalies of the IVC are not uncommon and are rel­evant to urologists, radiologists and vascular surgeons. With modern imaging techniques it is possible to accu­rately visualize the retroperitoneum. This has led to a renewed appreciation of the incidence of these venous anomalies. Duplication of the IVC is associated with vari­ous genitourinary and vascular malformations. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of duplica­tion of the IVC with an ectopic kidney having PUJ ob­struction.

   Case Report Top

A 31-year-old male presented with recurrent left iliac fossa pain of 9 months duration. An ultrasound showed an ectopic left kidney with dilated extrarenal pelvis. The IVU showed the ectopic kidney overlying the lumbosacral re­gion with pelvicalyciectasia. The ureter was not visualized in any of the films. A CT scan showed left hydronephrotic (pelvic) ectopic kidney with double IVC [Figure - 1],[Figure - 2]. He underwent left-dismembered pyeloplasty with an unevent­ful post-op recovery.

   Discussion Top

The embryogenesis of IVC is complex involving de­velopment, regression, anastomosis and replacement of three pairs of venous channels; posterior cardinal, subcar­dinal and supracardinal veins. [1] Dysplasia of the IVC in 7­8th weeks of embryogenesis gives rise to various IVC anomalies [2] (circum aortic venous ring, retrocaval ureter, duplication of IVC, left-sided IVC, azygous venous con­tinuation), which were classified by Huntington and McClure.' The incidence of IVC duplication is 0.2 to 3%. [3] It results froth the persistence of the left supracardinal vein. It is classified based on size of each segment and the level it crosses the midline. Most of these anomalies are inci­dentally detected or during evaluation of an unexplained hematuria. [2]

Various genitourinary anomalies are reported along with the vascular anomalies (viz. - cloacal extrophy, PUJ ob­struction, horseshoe kidney, polycystic kidney, [4] Klippel­Trenaunay syndrome, [5] renal tumour [6] ) but, the association with ectopic kidney has not been reported. A thorough search of the literature using Medline did not reveal any such report. Although the exact cause and effect of such an association is not known, abnormal venous develop­ment can be the cause for impaired renal ascent. Contrast­enhanced CT scan can clearly differentiate vascular and non-vascular structures and has remained the diagnostic method of choice.[3] Knowledge of the vascular tree is im­portant when operating on anomalously placed kidneys.

   References Top

1.Chaung VP, Mena E, Hoskins PA. Congenital anomalies of the in­ferior venacava: Review of embryogenesis and presentation of a simplified classification. Br J Radiol 1974: 47: 206.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Hayashi M, Kume T, Nihira H. Abnormalities of renal venous system and unexplained renal hematuria. J Urol 1980; 124: 12-16.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Mayo J, Gray R, St. Louis E et al. Anomalies of the inferior vena cava. AJR 1983; 140: 339-344.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Mani NBS, Venkataramu NK, Paramjeet Singh, Sudha Suri. Case report. Duplication of IVC and associated renal anomalies. IJRI 2000; 10: 2-3.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Schofield D, Zaatari GS, Gay BB. Klippel-Trenaunay and Sturge­Weber syndromes with renal hemangioma and double inferior vena cava. J Urol 1986; 136: 442-445.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Habuchi T, Okagaki T, Arai K, Miyakawa M. Renal cell carcinoma extending into left side of double inferior vena cava. Urology 1993; 41: 181-184.  Back to cited text no. 6    


  [Figure - 1], [Figure - 2]


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